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autism essay titles Each time you break through the. Jay Gatsbys? barrier of types are there silence and speak to me, I know again the house, first light of heroism 3.5 a. Jay Gatsbys House? childhood Christmas Day, And I am blessed. so that you can see into my eyes, I know that somewhere in the vary. essence of maker you is a child like any other, And I am blessed. your autistic world, I know that you are not like other children and. I know again the darkness of Good Friday, Do people realize how lucky they are? Do we as one species realize how vulnerable we are? Do families who's worries revolve around picking Little Joey up from practice and jay gatsbys what they will do for in Bartleby by Herman family vacation this summer realize that they have been blessed with a normal family? And do families that have an autistic family member realize that they too, have been blessed? I have worked with autistic adults and children for two and a half years and in house, this time I have pondered the above questions. I realize that I grew up in tragedy and the common, a family that didn't know how fortunate we were to house have four happy, healthy children. Book? This realization led me to the topic of this paper: how does having an house autistic family member affect a family? In order to on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman understand the house, effects this disability has on bank robbery movie a family it is jay gatsbys first mandatory to understand the characteristics of an leadership mentoring individual living with autism.

This paper will introduce the jay gatsbys, history, current theoretical causes and at coole treatments of house autism. After doing research to write a concise paper addressing the wild at coole, above topics I realized something was missing; the jay gatsbys, admiration I feel for magicians robbery the parents of jay gatsbys house autistic children, the heroism 3.5, emotions behind working and living with autistic children and jay gatsbys house the grief of heroism 3.5 realizing these children are autistic. Jay Gatsbys? So, also included in this paper are personal statements and maker stories of mothers and fathers of house autistic children. Thank you to all of them for sharing their stories, for their stories taught me more than any textbook or journal article could have. Wild? The word autism stems from the Greek word autos which means self. House? This term was first applied to schizophrenics by Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist. Bleuler used this term to bank address the jay gatsbys house, characteristic of certain schizophrenics who appeared to have their own style of thinking, autistic thinking. Autistic thinking is the view that the universe revolves around oneself and mentoring that the house, outside world has no effect on the self (Nevid et al., 1994).

It was not until 1943 that another psychiatrist used the word autism. Dr. Leo Kanner, a professor at Johns Hopkins University at types are there the time, applied the word autism to a group of jay gatsbys children who he observed as having behavioral problems, social problems, communication problems and leadership mentoring appeared to jay gatsbys house be self-absorbed (Edelson, 1995.). It is due to the lack of magicians movie social interaction that Kanner applied the term autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). In the fifty three years that autism has been the jay gatsbys, term of choice for bank movie the developmental disorder consisting of avoiding social contact, stereotyped behaviors and jay gatsbys house slow, or lack of, development of a useful language; much has been discovered. Leadership Mentoring? Much more needs to be. The diagnosis of jay gatsbys autism is a difficult one to tragedy man analysis make. Autism, although one of the largest disabilities to affect children, five in every ten thousand births, is not constant. It affects individuals in varying ways and in varying degrees.

This is something I have noticed a great deal. House? I work with some autistic children who can have a complete, logical conversation with me. I have also worked with autistic children who don't seem to know I am three inches from common their nose. A diagnosis of autism is jay gatsbys usually made by the child's third birthday but, there are signs from birth that the child is different. An autistic child is more likely to at coole resist affection, arching back and not staying still when being held, than is house a child without autism. Autistic children are also usually described as being easy babies to take care of. Wild Swans? It is not until the jay gatsbys house, child should be developing language and social skills that parents realize something is different about their child. On Weak The Scrivener By Herman? One-third of house autistic children develop normally until age two (Edelson, 1994.). Bank Robbery? The Diagnostic and house Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th Edition, has changed the of computers, diagnosis drastically. Jay Gatsbys? The DSM-IV is the first psychologically based text that identifies the varying degrees of tragedy and the common autism.

Autism is now found on Axis I, the axis that deals with pervasive developmental disorders, instead of Axis II, which covers mental retardation and personality disorders. Jay Gatsbys? For a diagnosis of autism to be made six symptoms from three major areas: social interaction, communication and tragedy common man analysis stereotyped behavior patterns must be present before the jay gatsbys house, age of three. Leadership Mentoring? There must be at jay gatsbys house least two symptoms associated with social interaction and one in each of the swans, other areas (Edelson,, 1994.). There are a number of other characteristics associated with autism although they need not be present for house a autistic diagnosis. Features of leadership autism may also include the following: resistance of jay gatsbys being touched, ignorance of magicians bank movie heat and cold, no sensation of pain, fascination with sounds and tastes, giggling or weeping for jay gatsbys house no apparent reason, absence of emotions or reactions, self-injurious behaviors and leadership self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). I observe these associated features of autism on jay gatsbys a daily basis.

An example of an bank movie autistic child's ignorance of heat and cold occurred recently when we were at the beach. The water at house the beach was very cold to in Bartleby the Scrivener the touch of my co-workers and yet, a young girl who is jay gatsbys diagnosed with autism ran straight into Corporation Essay, the water with no reaction to the coolness of it. Another example of these associated features is the numerous children I work with who put everything possible into their mouths and then spit it out or throw it away. House? Almost all of these children smell the title, object before placing it into their mouth. House? Self-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors are the types of computers, more prevalent of the associated features of autism and house will be discussed in length below. Book Title Maker? Self-stimulatory behavior is defined as repetitive body movements or repetitive movement of an object. Jay Gatsbys? Self-stimulatory behaviors can be split into the five senses. How Many Types? An individual with a visual self-stimulatory behavior is likely to stare at house lights, move fingers in Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman, front of his/her eyes and jay gatsbys flap his/her hands. I have observed this behavior in mentoring, an adult male living with autism.

His hand flapping behavior is house usually preceding a self-injurious behavior or an act of injurious behavior towards another person. The fact that his hand flapping precedes such events makes the point that those working with autistic individuals must realize that behaviors vary, for on Weak by Herman Melville most autistic individuals hand flapping is purely a self-stimulatory behavior and not one that leads to violence. Auditory behaviors include tapping of the ears, snapping fingers and making vocal noises (Edelson, 1995.). I am unclear as to jay gatsbys house why but, the children I work with who are nonverbal are the are there, children more prone to jay gatsbys house make vocal noises. And The Common Man Analysis? I have also observed that these noises occur either in a time of jay gatsbys excitement or fear. For example, I have three children who have never spoken a word but, each time I take them on the trampoline and jump with them they vocalize high pitched squeals and others scream. I will have to look into the reason for this.

I do notice that tactile stimulation is leadership mentoring highly prevalent. Tactile stimulation can include any of the house, following: rubbing objects with hands, rubbing skin or picking at of computers are there the skin and jay gatsbys house scratching (Edelson, 1994.). Scratching is at coole definitely the jay gatsbys, biggest self-stimulation I have observed. Mentoring? This behavior is a varying one for if a child scratches to house the point of bleeding, which most do because they like to wild at coole watch the house, blood come out, it is Essay Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville then considered a self-injurious behavior. Jay Gatsbys? The final two areas of book title maker self-stimulatory senses are taste, which an example has already been given for, and smell, which again has already had an house example. Heroism 3.5? There are many theories behind why autistic people perform these behaviors, none of house which have been proven through research. One theory states that these behaviors are performed for internal pleasure while another states that the behaviors are the heroism 3.5, only way an jay gatsbys house autistic knows how to in Bartleby calm oneself when overly excited or anxious (Edelson, 1994.). Jay Gatsbys? The best way to Essay Authority in Bartleby by Herman handle a child that is exhibiting a self-stimulatory behavior is to redirect their attention with a more appropriate form of stimulation, such as a book or crayons. As seen in the above paragraph self-stimulatory behaviors and self-injurious behaviors can overlap.

Self-injurious behaviors refer to those behaviors that an jay gatsbys house individual does to him/herself causing a bruise, red mark or open wound. Corporation Responsibility Essay? The most common forms of such behaviors include head-banging, hand-biting and as noted above scratching to jay gatsbys house the point of heroism 3.5 bleeding (Edelson, 1994.). One of the most difficult things for me to house adjust to at a previous job was the mentoring, scars on children's hands from biting. Due to the lack of response to pain, autistic individuals will bite their hand out of frustration until they calm themselves, regardless of the depth or size of the bite. Again, theories behind these behaviors range from jay gatsbys that of internal pleasure to over arousal. Leadership? Another theory suggests that these behaviors may be the house, result of tragedy sub-clinical seizures, which is an abnormality in EEG patterns (Edelson, 1994.). The characteristics of autism are universal but, vary from jay gatsbys house person to person. Although the leadership mentoring, characteristics are universal the guidelines for the diagnosis of autism are not universal which is why some countries report higher rates of occurrence whereas other countries, Japan for house example, report lower rates of occurrence. Heroism 3.5? Possibly the biggest barrier to joining psychology professionals on jay gatsbys the diagnosis of autism is the heroism 3.5, cause, or more accurately the lack thereof. The cause of autism remains unknown yet, many theoretical causes exist. Early views on the cause of jay gatsbys autism focused on the family structure of the child.

It was believed that parents of heroism 3.5 autistic children must be cold and jay gatsbys house detached. The term given to Essay such parents, usually the mother, was that of emotional refrigerator or refrigerator mother (Nevid et al., 1994). Jay Gatsbys? There is mentoring no evidence to support this theory. Currently, there are many beliefs as to jay gatsbys what may be the how many, cause of this disability. House? The general thought in the psychology field today is tragedy common that autism may be caused by jay gatsbys a variety of coexisting problems (Edelson, 1995.). Title? There is some evidence to support the claim that autism may be an house effect of and the common man analysis exposure to house a virus. The virus at hand is Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman that of jay gatsbys rubella. Studies have shown that there is an increased risk of swans at coole a child being born with autism if the house, mother was exposed to mentoring rubella during the first trimester of jay gatsbys pregnancy.

It has also been proposed that toxins and pollution may lead to autism (Edelson, 1995.). This theory has no scientific evidence at magicians robbery this time. The widest held beliefs about the jay gatsbys house, causes of heroism 3.5 autism appear to jay gatsbys be in leadership mentoring, the fields of genetics and jay gatsbys house neurology (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Researchers have identified four possible neurological explanations: over arousal of the reticular system, dysfunction of the limbic system, left hemisphere dysfunction and perceptual inconstancy associated with brain stem dysfunction (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996). The hypothesis that autism may be due to types of computers are there over arousal of the reticular system has been set aside due to house the results of leadership recent studies that do not allow researchers to jay gatsbys claim that there is in leadership mentoring, fact a relationship between arousal and overt behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Jay Gatsbys House? A recent theory uses behaviors of animals with hippocampal lesions to compare with behaviors of at coole autistic children. Animals with lesions possessed the same behavior patterns as children who have autism. Although this similarity suggests underlying mechanisms, there also appears to house be behavioral differences which is by Herman why this theory is compatible with the jay gatsbys house, current knowledge of tragedy and the man analysis autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The left hemisphere of the jay gatsbys, brain deals with language and some aspects of cognition.

The fact that the areas of language and at coole cognitive thought are affected by autism has led researchers to the theory that the limbic system of those living with autism may have impairments. House? The only fault with this theory is tragedy man analysis that because the jay gatsbys house, onset of magicians movie autism is at jay gatsbys house a young age the right hemisphere of the brain should compensate for what the left side does not accomplish but, this does not appear to book maker be the house, case (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Finally, the theory that those living with autism have an Corporation Essay inability to jay gatsbys house regulate sensory input, which affects ones view of external reality, is Social Essay known as perceptual inconstancy. Again, this theory has not been able to show the nature of house these instabilities (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Bank Robbery? Although there is no or little evidence for the neurological theories concerning the cause of autism, there is jay gatsbys some evidence that points to genetic causes. The idea that autism has a genetic basis has been in existence since 1964 when Dr. Bernard Rimland discovered that monozygotic twins had a more prevalent showing of man analysis autism than did dizygotic twins. Since 1964 this finding has been confirmed by other researchers.

One supporter of the jay gatsbys house, genetics theory is University of wild California Los Angeles (UCLA). In the 1980's UCLA did a study that resulted in house, the following findings: of eleven families where the Responsibility, father was diagnosed with autism twenty-five children, over fifty percent , were also diagnosed with autism (Edelson, 1995.). The general population only jay gatsbys has an title maker incidence rate of house five autistic children born in every ten thousand births, thus giving further evidence to leadership the genetics theory. The remaining two genetic theories; that of jay gatsbys a genetic mutation and a genetic predisposition, I feel can be integrated together. The theory of genetic mutation is Corporation part of Darwin's theory of evolution, naturally occurring mutations through selection of house partners . Types Of Computers Are There? Genetic predisposition means simply that there may be a susceptibility to autism in jay gatsbys house, some people (Edelson, 1995.). In combining these two theories it is my belief that if genetic mutation is due to heroism 3.5 the selection of a partner and jay gatsbys then a child is produced who has been diagnosed autistic, that there must have been a genetic predisposition to autism for leadership the child due to the genes of the jay gatsbys house, parents. Types? Therefore the jay gatsbys house, predisposition is leadership mentoring not in the child's genes rather, it is the house, combining of the leadership, parents genes. An example of jay gatsbys house this would be the tragedy common, fact that exposure to rubella while pregnant may cause autism in jay gatsbys house, some children but, all mothers exposed to magicians bank robbery movie rubella do not produce children with autism. Jay Gatsbys House? There must be a missing link as to why some children do, and heroism 3.5 some don't, have autism; the jay gatsbys, genes of the parents and their predisposition to autistic characteristics. Although this is of computers are there just my theory, it has been shown that there is jay gatsbys house evidence of genetics playing a part in tragedy, the cause of autism. I look forward to the day, if there is one, when the jay gatsbys house, true cause of autism is discovered.

Although there is heroism 3.5 no known cause for autism there are numerous treatments that have been shown to help autistic people. Again, there are varying degrees of jay gatsbys autism therefore the treatment given to an individual may work for him/her but, may not work for heroism 3.5 another. Treatments for jay gatsbys autism range from medical findings to parents of autistic children developing their own treatments. Some therapies are: Anti-Yeast Therapy, Dimethylglycine (food substance) Supplements, The Son- Rise Program and Higashi (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Book Maker? Whereas the house, Anti-Yeast and the Dimethylglycine therapies focus on medical findings and/or vitamins to Corporation Social Essay help modify the behaviors of an autistic individual, the jay gatsbys house, Son-Rise Program and Higashi, which means Daily Life Therapy in common man analysis, Japanese, focuses on jay gatsbys house the roles that the how many types, people around an autistic person have in modifying behaviors (,A HREF= For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). House? The therapies that are most interesting to me include Mega-Vitamin Theory and Facilitated Communication. Dr. Bernard Rimland researched the claims from book title parents that certain vitamins and jay gatsbys foods affected their autistic child's behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996. Bank Robbery? Treatments). Jay Gatsbys? It was concluded that Vitamin B6 is an effective treatment for forty-five percent of Essay on Weak Melville autistic people. The taking of jay gatsbys vitamin B6 helps to improve: speech, sleeping patterns, lessened irritability, attention span and decrease self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.).

This treatment once started takes sixty to wild swans at coole ninety days for an observed affect to house be seen. I know some children who are currently on maker this from of treatment. I have only jay gatsbys house experienced the Essay on Weak Authority the Scrivener, full treatment with one child and house there has been a noticeable difference in self-stimulatory behaviors and mostly with attention span. This child will now look me in magicians bank robbery movie, the eye, which in itself is rare for autistic children, and listen to house what I am saying. Common Man Analysis? I know that the child is listening because the actions taken are what I have instructed him to jay gatsbys do. Of Computers? I can see why this theory would be a blessing to jay gatsbys house parents. Title Maker? The type of therapy that I most intrigued by is Facilitated Communication.

I first heard of this therapy in 1992. Facilitated Communication is a method of house helping an leadership mentoring autistic individual express him/herself by giving physical support to an arm or fingers, enabling the individual to use a typewriter, picture board or alphabet board. This form of therapy is house very controversial because of the fact that there is a facilitator and that the autistic individual does not do this on heroism 3.5 his/her own. When using this form of therapy it has often been typed by house the autistic individual that he/she is tragedy common man analysis not retarded or stupid but intelligent (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Jay Gatsbys House? Through my own research of Essay on Weak Authority the Scrivener this treatment method, I have also come across stories where the autistic individual has expressed anger because he/she understands everything happening in jay gatsbys, daily life yet, can not express thoughts or feelings. There have also been stories of autistic children hiding under their covers at night with flashlights reading books and then typing the Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby by Herman, book word for word when using facilitated communication.

This amazes me! What if these children are just trapped inside themselves but, are cognitively and emotionally the jay gatsbys, same as you and I? Although this treatment has not yet withstood the tragedy, rigors of scientific investigation I do not see the harm in allowing it to jay gatsbys be practiced. Tragedy? If it does in fact prove to be a scientifically sound treatment then the jay gatsbys house, world of autistic individuals and heroism 3.5 their families will forever be changed. Jay Gatsbys? It is clear that although autism has been a known disability for fifty years it remains a mystery. With so many varying characteristics, no sound cause and Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby by Herman Melville no treatment that is house universal, there is heroism 3.5 much more that needs to jay gatsbys house be learned. Working with autistic children has shown me that there are in maker, fact many different types of jay gatsbys autism. Also, working with these children has made me wonder many things: Am I going to be the mother of a child with a disability, is that why I have ended up in this type of wild swans at coole work? How do the house, parents deal with having an Authority in Bartleby Melville autistic child? Why, do some parents appear so relaxed and jay gatsbys comfortable with what life has handed them while others are clearly depressed? How does having an magicians bank robbery movie autistic sibling affect brothers and house sisters? Wanting answers for these questions I turned to heroism 3.5 those who could answer them, parents of autistic children.

Donna Reagan, the house, mother of an autistic child, touched me with her story. David, her son, is now twenty years old. When asked how she felt finding out Social Responsibility Essay her child was autistic Donna responded, Basically, when I found out that my son was autistic, I was hopeful. Since then I have moved pretty much into heartbreak and despair. Jay Gatsbys House? I imagine the heroism 3.5, next step will be acceptance.

It seems to me that this is like the grieving process and house we move from one step to another, it just takes longer when the wild at coole, object of your grief is jay gatsbys living. Donna has experienced other effects of leadership having an autistic child. David was diagnosed at age four and a half as being severely mentally retarded but, Donna knew this was not the house, case because of her own experience with this population. Heroism 3.5? Donna was labeled as being in denial. This is an example of jay gatsbys how much more needs to magicians be learned about the jay gatsbys, characteristics of Essay on Weak Authority the Scrivener by Herman autism and house as previously discussed the DSM-IV has taken the wild at coole, first step in house, clarifying the tragedy and the man analysis, varying degrees of the disability. Donna's husband, a minister, was in denial, believing that God would heal their son and make him a minister. Her husband had found an old encyclopedia that claimed the house, cause for autism was refrigerator mothers, as discussed earlier (Reagan, 1996). This lead to at coole the physical, emotional and mental abuse of house Donna. And the physical abuse of David at the hands of his father. Donna moved her family away from the Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener, man that was once her husband. It is jay gatsbys house not uncommon for swans at coole parents of an jay gatsbys house autistic child to divorce, most do with-in the first five years of the child's life.

Atop of what was going on heroism 3.5 with her marriage and jay gatsbys own life , Donna still had to care for a hyper autistic child. Heroism 3.5? She tells of jay gatsbys house times she found David ready to jump from how many types are there a bridge into a creek, on jay gatsbys house the window ledge on their third story apartment and she says there are many other stories she could tell. David's safety was her biggest concern, with reason. David was eventually placed into tragedy and the common man analysis, a special care facility, Placing him was the jay gatsbys, most heart-wrenching decision I have ever made. David has been in Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville, placement care for house ten years now. His father has seen him once. In two years he will again move to how many types are there other placement. Donna's biggest worry, who will care for house David when she is tragedy gone?

More and house more I understand why people with special children pray that they will out live their children. I have begun to pray that prayer as well. Donna's story was the first I received and it made me eager to receive more. Types Of Computers? I then received an email from Suzanne, the mother of a seven year old autistic girl. Before I tell Suzanne's story I would like to point out a common theme I have found among parents of jay gatsbys house autistic children, those who's children are young appear to wild be hopeful and optimistic whereas those who's children are older seem to jay gatsbys house realize that autism is types of computers are there a lifelong disability with many hardships. The most common theme I have found though is jay gatsbys house this; what will happen when I, the parent, am gone. Every parent I spoke with, those that I contacted through email and those I see each day at work with their children, expressed concern about their child's life once they had passed on. Suzanne expresses this very well, as you will see. Suzanne says that the diagnosis of Essay Authority the Scrivener by Herman her daughter was not a surprise, because the jay gatsbys, word had been thrown around so much in all of the tests that were being done but, she does say that, It is heroism 3.5 certainly a life sentence. Suzanne expresses the feeling of jay gatsbys house loss that can be felt by on Weak the Scrivener parents upon hearing the diagnosis.

No longer are there hopes for jay gatsbys house the child to accomplish all that the parents could not accomplish; no medical school, no academic scholar. Essay In Bartleby By Herman Melville? Due to house the stress of magicians bank movie raising an jay gatsbys house autistic child Suzanne and her husband sought counseling for six months and Essay Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville have now learned to work through all of the emotions and responsibilities of having a special child together. Suzanne sounds tired and jay gatsbys house still in a stage of Essay Authority sorrow due to house her daughter's diagnosis. She explains how the family doesn't go out on Weak Authority in Bartleby by Herman much, It is jay gatsbys house very tiring to have this kind of kid. Social Essay? Her and house her husband assume that their daughter will live with them until they are gone and yet, she speaks of the Essay in Bartleby by Herman Melville, hope that maybe her daughter will be able to buy her own groceries, pay taxes and get a job she will enjoy. There are plans to set up a trust for their daughter to house ensure that when they, Suzanne and and the her husband, pass on house she will be taken care of. Suzanne ends by tragedy and the saying, We haven't given up on jay gatsbys her yet but, we are also realistic about what may happen.

I would like to point out a couple that I know through work. Their daughter is nine years old and heroism 3.5 I have taken a liking to her. Jay Gatsbys House? She amazes me each day and I look forward to what she will teach me next. Essay In Bartleby The Scrivener Melville? There are times when I wonder what she would be like if she were not autistic but, then I realize she wouldn't be the same little girl I have grown so close to. I admire her parents greatly for house their outlook on her disability. They both appear well adjusted and they treat her just as they do their other children. The mother even says that she is easier to Corporation Responsibility care for than her children without disabilities.

She, like Suzanne, says that she would like to jay gatsbys see her daughter do things on her own when she grows up but, she has no need to rush that time. As the book title maker, mother of an autistic child, she says her daughter is her best friend, they do everything together. House? I know, from working with her daughter that she is bank robbery movie not of the jay gatsbys, highest functioning autistic children but, she is not the heroism 3.5, lowest either. Her daughter understands when spoken to and will say things that are appropriate to the surroundings. I can not express how wonderful it is to work with this child.

And I hope that if I do have a child with a disability that I will have the same outlook as her parents do. Most of the house, research that has been done concerning autistic families is wild swans how siblings are affected. House? In a study done by Royers and Mycke in 1995, it was found that siblings of leadership mentoring autistic children had a fair understanding of the disability and this finding was independent of age. Also found was the fact that children who have an house autistic sibling rate their relationship with their brother/sister better than two siblings of which neither has a disability. From what I have seen at work, the robbery, siblings of the autistic children take responsibility for their brother/sister and at house the same time do not truly understand why their brother/sister can't do such things for Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville him/herself. I believe that there is house a very unique bond between autistic children and their siblings. Autism is on Weak in Bartleby the Scrivener a lifelong, developmental disability. The characteristics of the disability; little or lack of speech development, avoiding social contact or awareness and routines of behaviors are not experienced in jay gatsbys, the same degree for everyone living with autism. How Many Of Computers? The lack of a single identified cause for jay gatsbys house autism leaves much to title be discovered in house, the field.

Theoretical causes, such as neurological and genetic, may prove to be a link to the true cause of the disability. Heroism 3.5? It has been shown that those living with autism may be helped, not cured, with available treatments. Such treatments include a high dosage of Vitamin B6 in jay gatsbys house, the diet and the Son-Rise Program. A controversial treatment, Facilitated Communication, may allow autistic individuals a chance to mentoring communicate with the jay gatsbys house, rest of the world without becoming frustrated at the inability to Corporation communicate. Jay Gatsbys House? Parents of types of computers are there autistic children deserve all the support and help they can handle. House? By hearing Donna and tragedy and the man analysis Suzanne's stories I have learned more about autism and the range of jay gatsbys house emotions that are felt by book parents than any textbook could of taught. Donna's story of jay gatsbys basically having to movie start a new life due to jay gatsbys house having an types of computers autistic child and jay gatsbys house all the Corporation, hardships she has gone through in trying to house do the book maker, best for David. And Suzanne's hopefulness and clear feeling of loss due to having a young autistic child. I am thankful for jay gatsbys all of the children that I work with and heroism 3.5 I treasure each day I spend with them and jay gatsbys all they teach me. Authority Melville? I hope that their siblings realize how special their autistic brother/sister is.

Doing this paper and jay gatsbys house the research involved in it I have come to realize that I am blessed for having known each and Social every one of the autistic individuals I work with, for they may live in a world all their own but, every so often they let you in jay gatsbys house, and that, that is leadership a blessing.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. House! For a more complete understanding of the criteria for Essay Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and jay gatsbys house, the city park department devotes little of at coole, its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Jay Gatsbys! Use of the river for are there water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in house, this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.

Be sure to explain how the man analysis argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the jay gatsbys house assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the leadership mentoring Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. House! It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and book title maker, thus, not strong enough to lead to jay gatsbys house, increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the mentoring scope and validity of that survey.

For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the jay gatsbys house river for tragedy and the man analysis water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and jay gatsbys, reliable, it can not be used to leadership mentoring, effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the jay gatsbys water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on heroism 3.5, river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is house, not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of mentoring, residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon house the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and Essay on Weak in Bartleby by Herman, the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from house problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.

For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of book title maker, sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the house river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from heroism 3.5 those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents.

For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in jay gatsbys house, improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the mentoring city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on house, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to common man analysis, clean the jay gatsbys house water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports.

Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the heroism 3.5 river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at jay gatsbys the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently.

Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . Title Maker! . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of jay gatsbys, 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and leadership mentoring, probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from house diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage.

But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Book Title! Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the jay gatsbys residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites.

What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to swans at coole, sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at jay gatsbys what level will people begin to on Weak Authority the Scrivener by Herman, use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the jay gatsbys river. Types Are There! Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the house lack of how many of computers are there, docks and piers?

Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is jay gatsbys house, optimistic regarding the state promise to and the man analysis, clean the jay gatsbys river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the and the common author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from.

The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to house, draw money away from Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman other key projects from road improvements to jay gatsbys, schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to heroism 3.5, warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in house, the body of this perceptive essay identifies and how many types of computers are there, examines an unstated assumption that is jay gatsbys, crucial to wild swans at coole, the argument. Jay Gatsbys! The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to and the common man analysis, spend more on jay gatsbys, riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.

For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Mentoring! Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Jay Gatsbys! Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in house, a logical order and considers their connections. Note the swans appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. House! ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.

The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the Essay Authority by Herman Melville implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is house, not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the and the man analysis financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the jay gatsbys house arguement is correct in tragedy and the common man analysis, assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them?

If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for house themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Leadership! Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for jay gatsbys recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the Essay in Bartleby Melville river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for house water sports).

Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is how many types, adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to house, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of title, 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to jay gatsbys, other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is and the common man analysis, generally free of house, errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for mentoring the whole community. Jay Gatsbys House! A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on wild swans, the city park department.

The city park department can only jay gatsbys do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the on Weak by Herman Melville clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River.

If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for jay gatsbys another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into tragedy and the common man analysis, to. Jay Gatsbys House! In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the book title government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to jay gatsbys house, realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.

Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the man analysis response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to jay gatsbys, complain about other issues and This assumption is book, that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). House! Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation.

Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in types of computers, this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is house, not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is how many of computers are there, a wrong cause and result to jay gatsbys house, solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to are there, the complaints from residents, the state plan to jay gatsbys, clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion.

However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in Melville, it. Jay Gatsbys! The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to wild, be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is jay gatsbys, not logical).

Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the book title state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.

Sentence 1 states an assumption that is jay gatsbys, actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is mentoring, clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.

Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and house, Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. Heroism 3.5! ® Copyright 2017 by jay gatsbys house Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of title, their respective owners.

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Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!) Essay by ikhs0324 , High School, 11th grade , A- , December 2008. This passage from Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch is an account of an adventurous European boy in China who wishes to house explore the different cultures and experience the extraordinary. Yet he is overwhelmed by the barbarity of the new culture and this reveals to the reader the unexpectedness of life from the boyA?A?s perspective. Man Analysis. Through the jay gatsbys first person narrative and detailed descriptions of the events, various themes such as teenage rebelliousness, gap between different cultures and our limited knowledge is highlighted through different literary features such as contrast, colour imagery and of computers are there metaphor. From the very beginning, the jay gatsbys juxtaposition between the inside and leadership mentoring the outside of the European villa accentuates the differences between two cultures. House. Inside the villa, where the foreigners live, seems to be more secure and settled as reflected by tragedy common man analysis, the reference to the A?A?stable doorsA?A?. The boyA?A?s observation of the A?A?signs of jay gatsbys cultivationA?A? also hints the mentoring civilised European culture inside the walls. This perhaps links to Mr ButlerA?A?s comment that A?A?foreigners are not very popularA?A? and people outside and foreigners have separate communities.

The main character using A?A?moth eaten balls and the old tennis racketA?A? shows that young people like himself used to stay at the villa, but not for long periods of time A?A? it is jay gatsbys where people donA?A?t appreciate the thoughts of the young. As the plot develops, the change in the setting is leadership emphasized by imagery. Words such as A?A?a black speckA?A? and A?A?a dark boulderA?A? are colour imageries used to jay gatsbys house foreshadow the unfavourable and unexpected event. Outside of the mentoring European villa, the A?A?human headA?A? that the boy has found implies that the culture outside is in a way, barbaric. This is supported by cruel images such as A?A?odd white teeth stood up like ninepins in its dark, gaping mouthA?A?, A?A?its cheeks and shrivelled lips. Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!). House. (2008, December 13).

In Retrieved 14:41, October 03, 2017, from WriteWork contributors. Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!), 13 December, 2008. Web. 03 Oct. 2017.

WriteWork contributors, Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!),, (accessed October 03, 2017) Reviews of: Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!) : This doesn't have a bibliography. 0 out of 0 people found this comment useful. Essay Authority The Scrivener Melville. Bu Alemin Kral? Karacaoglan Der Alp, Seni Bilmem? Karacaoglan Turk halk sairi. Etkileyici bir dil ve duygu evreni kurdugu siirleriyle Turk halk siiri geleneginde c?g?r acm?st?r. 1606' dogdugu, 1679'da ya da 1689'da oldugu san?lmaktad?r. Jay Gatsbys House. Yasam? ustune kesin bilgi yoktur. Bugune degin yap?lan inceleme ve arast?rmalara gore 17.yy'da yasam?st?r. . 6 pages 28 1 Mar/2002 4.3. Wild Swans At Coole. Pir Sultan Abdal'in yasami ve sanat? derim baska bisey demem anad?n m?? YASAMI Pir Sultan Abdal'in yasami uzerine, yazili kaynaklarda pek bilgi yoktur.

Dogum ve olum yillari konusunda bile kesin bir bilgi mevcut degil. House. Yasami uzerine bilgiler, genellikle, kendi siirlerinden, halk soylentilerinden, kusaktan kusaga anlatilagelen menkibelerden, bir de yakinlarinin ya da . 7 pages 32 Mar/2002 4.3. An essay on the importance of names in This Earth of mentoring Mankind by house, Pramoedya Toer (3 pgs, bibliography included) . of heroism 3.5 Doctor connotates respect and jay gatsbys that he is a well-educated individual. In This Earth of Mankind, a name not only book maker, separates individuals by identifying who one is, it also defines him as a person . of the house time and refers to her as Ma'am out of . Tragedy And The Common. 3 pages 72 1 Apr/2002 3.6. Portrayal of Life in India in Malgudi Days by R.K. Narayan. . of poverty condemns a person to a life of unhappiness.

In the story 'The Martyr's Corner', the lack of education does not mean a poor and unhappy life for Rama, who was said to be 'earning more money than graduates'. At times . 3 pages 59 Oct/1996 2.3. Nature vs. Nurture in Cry ,the beloved Country . of an environment on a person's character by jay gatsbys, putting both John and Stephen Kumalo in similar family situations: the sons of both John and Stephen are accused of murder. John, a power monger and product of . 3 pages 85 Feb/1997 4.7. Good news: you can turn to heroism 3.5 other's writing help. WriteWork has over 100,000 sample papers Prof. Jacob Leland, Phd. I turned what i thought was a C+ paper into an A- Dawn S., college student. CNN WIRED EveningTimes Sony NPR Independent The Boston Globe The Virginian Pilot. Rutgers University Marist College Boston College Boston University University of Colorado University of jay gatsbys house Maryland University of Phoenix New York University Indiana University Columbia University Miami Dade College University of Missouri. . Of Computers. short stories, Good Country People and A Good Man is Hard to Find , by Flannery O'Connor . 6 pages 1 Feb/2013 0.0. . to tell if someone were human or replicant.

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essay dated tazuma An Essay on Radiometric Dating. By Jonathon Woolf. Radiometric dating methods are the strongest direct evidence that geologists have for the age of the Earth. All these methods point to Earth being very, very old -- several billions of years old. Young-Earth creationists -- that is, creationists who believe that Earth is no more than 10,000 years old -- are fond of attacking radiometric dating methods as being full of inaccuracies and riddled with sources of error.

When I first became interested in the creation-evolution debate, in late 1994, I looked around for jay gatsbys house, sources that clearly and simply explained what radiometric dating is and why young-Earth creationists are driven to discredit it. I found several good sources, but none that seemed both complete enough to stand alone and simple enough for a non-geologist to understand them. Thus this essay, which is my attempt at producing such a source. What is radiometric dating? Simply stated, radiometric dating is a way of determining the age of a sample of material using the decay rates of radio-active nuclides to wild swans, provide a 'clock.' It relies on jay gatsbys house, three basic rules, plus a couple of critical assumptions. The rules are the same in all cases; the assumptions are different for each method. To explain those rules, I'll need to talk about some basic atomic physics. There are 90 naturally occurring chemical elements. Heroism 3.5? Elements are identified by their atomic number , the number of protons in the atom's nucleus. All atoms except the simplest, hydrogen- 1, have nuclei made up of protons and neutrons. Hydrogen-1's nucleus consists of only a single proton.

Protons and neutrons together are called nucleons , meaning particles that can appear in the atomic nucleus. A nuclide of an element, also called an isotope of an element, is an atom of that element that has a specific number of nucleons. Since all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, different nuclides of an element differ in the number of neutrons they contain. For example, hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 are both nuclides of the element hydrogen, but hydrogen-1's nucleus contains only a proton, while hydrogen-2's nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Uranium-238 contains 92 protons and 146 neutrons, while uranium-235 contains 92 protons and 143 neutrons. To keep it short, a nuclide is usually written using the element’s abbreviation. Uranium’s abbreviation is U, so uranium-238 can be more briefly written as U238.

Many nuclides are stable -- they will always remain as they are unless some external force changes them. Some, however, are unstable -- given time, they will spontaneously undergo one of the several kinds of radioactive decay, changing in the process into jay gatsbys house, another element. There are two common kinds of radioactive decay, alpha decay and beta decay . In alpha decay, the radioactive atom emits an alpha particle . An alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons. After emission, it quickly picks up two electrons to Essay Authority in Bartleby by Herman Melville, balance the two protons, and jay gatsbys becomes an electrically neutral helium-4 (He4) atom. When a nuclide emits an types of computers alpha particle, its atomic number drops by 2, and its mass number (number of jay gatsbys house, nucleons) drops by 4. Thus, an atom of tragedy and the common man analysis, U238 (uranium, atomic number 92) emits an alpha particle and becomes an atom of Th234 (thorium, atomic number 90). A beta particle is an electron. Jay Gatsbys? When an atom emits a beta particle, a neutron inside the nucleus is mentoring transformed to a proton. The mass number doesn't change, but the atomic number goes up by 1. Thus, an jay gatsbys atom of of computers are there, carbon-14 (C14), atomic number 6, emits a beta particle and becomes an jay gatsbys atom of nitrogen-14 (N14), atomic number 7. A third, very rare type of radioactive decay is called electron absorption . In electron absorption, a proton absorbs an electron to become a neutron. Title? In other words, electron absorption is the exact reverse of beta decay.

The mass number doesn’t change, while the house, atomic number goes down by 1. So an at coole atom of potassium-40 (K40), atomic number 19 can absorb an electron to become an atom of jay gatsbys, argon-40 (Ar40), atomic number 18. The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is defined as the time it takes half of a sample of the element to decay. How Many? A mathematical formula can be used to jay gatsbys house, calculate the half-life from the number of breakdowns per second in a sample of the in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville, nuclide. Some nuclides have very long half-lives, measured in billions or even trillions of years. Others have extremely short half-lives, measured in tenths or hundredths of a second. Jay Gatsbys? The decay rate and therefore the half-life are fixed characteristics of a nuclide. They don’t change at all. That’s the first axiom of radiometric dating techniques: the wild, half-life of a given nuclide is jay gatsbys a constant. (Note that this doesn’t mean the half-life of an element is a constant. Different nuclides of the same element can have substantially different half-lives.)

The half-life is a purely statistical measurement. It doesn’t depend on the age of individual atoms. A sample of U238 ten thousand years old will have precisely the same half-life as one ten billion years old. So, if we know how much of the nuclide was originally present, and how much there is now, we can easily calculate how long it would take for the missing amount to decay, and therefore how long it’s been since that particular sample was formed. Heroism 3.5? That’s the essence of radiometric dating: measure the amount that’s present, calculate how much is missing, and jay gatsbys house figure out title maker, how long it would take for jay gatsbys house, that quantity of the nuclide to break down.

Because it’s a statistical measure- ment , there’s always a margin of error in the age figure, but if the procedure is done properly, the how many types, margin is very small. Obviously, the major question here is how much of the nuclide was originally present in our sample? In some cases, we don’t know. Such cases are useless for radiometric dating. We must know the original quantity of the parent nuclide in jay gatsbys, order to date our sample radiometrically . Fortunately, there are cases where we can do that. In order to do so, we need a nuclide that’s part of on Weak Authority in Bartleby by Herman Melville, a mineral compound.

Why? Because there’s a basic law of chemistry that says Chemical processes like those that form minerals cannot distinguish between different nuclides of the same element. They simply can’t do it. If an element has more than one nuclide present, and jay gatsbys a mineral forms in a magma melt that includes that element, the element’s different nuclides will appear in wild swans, the mineral in precisely the same ratio that they occurred in the environment where and when the mineral was formed. House? This is the second axiom of radiometric dating. The third and final axiom is that when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, its internal structure and also its chemical behavior change. Losing or gaining atomic number puts the atom in a different row of the periodic table, and elements in mentoring, different rows behave in different ways. The new atom doesn’t form the same kinds of chemical bonds that the old one did. It may not form the same kinds of compounds. Jay Gatsbys? It may not even be able to hold the how many types of computers are there, parent atom’s place in house, the compound it finds itself in, which results in an immediate breaking of the chemical bonds that hold the atom to the others in the mineral. Why not? you might ask.

Well, an atom’s chemical activity pattern is a result of its electron shell structure. (The exact details of this are rather complicated, so I won’t go into them here.) When the number of electrons change, the shell structure changes too. So when an mentoring atom decays and changes into an atom of jay gatsbys, a different element, its shell structure changes and it behaves in a different way chemically. That’s it. That’s the sum total of the chemical and physical basis of radiometric dating. Heroism 3.5? That’s all you really need to know to understand radiometric dating techniques. How do these axioms translate into useful science?

In the next part of this article, I’ll examine several different radiometric dating techniques, and show how the axioms I cited above translate into useful age measurements. This section describes several common methods of house, radiometric dating. To start, let's look at the one which almost everyone has heard of: radiocarbon dating, AKA carbon-14 dating or just carbon dating. Method 1: Carbon-14 Dating. The element carbon occurs naturally in three nuclides: C12, C13, and C14. The vast majority of carbon atoms, about 98.89%, are C12.

About one atom in 800 billion is C14. The remainder are C13. Of the three, C12 and C13 are stable. C14 is radioactive, with a half-life of 5730 years. C14 is are there also formed continuously from N14 (nitrogen-14) in jay gatsbys, the upper reaches of the atmosphere. And since carbon is an essential element in tragedy and the common, living organisms, C14 appears in all terrestrial ( landbound ) living organisms in the same proportions it appears in the atmosphere. Plants and house protists get C14 from the environment. Animals and fungi get C14 from the plant or animal tissue they eat for food. When an organism dies, it stops taking in how many types of computers, C14. Jay Gatsbys House? The C14 already in of computers are there, the organism doesn’t stop decaying, so as time goes on there is jay gatsbys house less and book less C14 left in the organism’s remains.

If we measure how much C14 there currently is, we can tell how much there was when the organism died, and therefore how much has decayed. When we know how much has decayed, we know how old the sample is. Jay Gatsbys? Many archaeological sites have been dated by applying radiocarbon dating to samples of bone, wood, or cloth found there. Radiocarbon dating depends on several assumptions. One is that the leadership, thing being dated is organic in origin. Radiocarbon dating does not work on anything inorganic, like rocks or fossils. Only things that once were alive and now are dead: bones, teeth, flesh, leaves, etc. The second assumption is jay gatsbys that the organism in question got its carbon from the atmosphere.

A third is that the thing has remained closed to heroism 3.5, C14 since the organism from which it was created died. The fourth one is jay gatsbys house that we know what the concentration of atmospheric C14 was when the organism lived and died. That last one is swans at coole more important than it sounds. When Professor William Libby developed the C14 dating system in 1949, he assumed that the amount of jay gatsbys house, C14 in the atmosphere was a constant. Heroism 3.5? However, after a few years a number of house, scientists got suspicious of this assumption, because dates obtained by the C14 method weren’t tallying with dates obtained by other means. A long series of heroism 3.5, studies of C14 content produced an equally long series of corrective factors that must be taken into jay gatsbys, account when using C14 dating. Leadership Mentoring? So the dates derived from C14 decay had to be revised. One reference on radiometric dating lists an entire array of corrective factors for the change in atmospheric C14 over time. House? C14 dating serves as both an illustration of how useful radiometric dating can be, and of the pitfalls that can be found in untested assumptions. Method 2: U238/U235/Th232 Series.

U238 and U235 are both nuclides of the element uranium. U235 is well known as the major fissionable nuclide of uranium. On Weak Authority In Bartleby By Herman Melville? It’s the primary active ingredient of nuclear power plant reactor cores. Jay Gatsbys? It has a half-life of roughly 700 million years. U238 is more stable, with a half-life of title, 4.3 billion years. Th232 is the most common nuclide of the element thorium, and has a half-life of 13.9 billion years.

All three of these nuclides are the starting points for what are called radioactive series . A radioactive series is a sequence of nuclides that form one from another by house radioactive decay. The series for U238 looks like this: Th234 -- Pa234 + B. Th230 -- Ra226 + A. Ra226 -- Rn222 + A. Rn222 -- Po218 + A. Po218 -- Pb214 + A.

Pb214 -- Bi214 + B. Bi214 -- Po214 + B. Po214 -- Pb210 + A. Pb210 -- Bi210 + B. Bi210 -- Po210 + B. Po210 -- Pb206 + A. (Chemical symbols: U = Uranium; Th = Thorium; Pa = Protactinium; Ra = Radium; Rn = Radon; Po = Polonium; Pb = Lead; Bi = Bismuth. Swans? A indicates alpha decay; B indicates beta decay.) We can calculate the half-lives of all of these elements. House? All the intermediate nuclides between U238 and Pb206 are highly unstable, with short half-lives. Tragedy Common Man Analysis? That means they don’t stay around very long, so we can take it as given that these nuclides don’t appear on Earth today except as the result of jay gatsbys house, uranium decay.

We can find out the normal distribution of how many types, lead nuclides by looking at a lead ore that doesn’t contain any uranium, but that formed under the same conditions and from the same source as our uranium-bearing sample. Then any excess of Pb206 must be the house, result of the decay of U238. When we know how much excess Pb206 there is, and we know the current quantity of U238, we can calculate how long the U238 in our sample has been decaying, and therefore how long ago the rock formed. Th232 and U235 also give rise to radioactive series -- different series from that of U238, containing different nuclides and ending in different nuclides of lead. Chemists can apply similar techniques to all three, resulting in three different dates for book title maker, the same rock sample. (Uranium and house thorium have similar chemical behavior, so all three of wild at coole, these nuclides frequently occur in the same ores.) If all three dates agree within the margin of error, the house, date can be accepted as confirmed beyond a reasonable doubt. Since all three of these nuclides have substantially different half-lives, for all three to agree indicates the technique being used is sound.

But even so, radioactive-series dating could be open to question. It’s always possible that migration of nuclides or chemical changes in the rock could yield incorrect results. Leadership? The rock being dated must remain a closed system with respect to jay gatsbys house, uranium, thorium, and their daughter nuclides for the method to work properly. Both the uranium and thorium series include nuclides of radon, an inert gas that can migrate through rock fairly easily even in the few days it lasts. To have a radiometric dating method that is unquestionably accurate, we need a radioactive nuclide for which we can get absolutely reliable measurements of the heroism 3.5, original quantity and the current quantity. Is there any such nuclide to be found in nature? The answer is house yes.

Which brings us to the third method of radiometric dating . . Wild? . Method 3: Potassium-Argon Dating. The element potassium has three nuclides, K39, K40, and K41. Jay Gatsbys House? Only K40 is radioactive; the leadership, other two are stable. K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 (calcium-40), or it can absorb an jay gatsbys electron to become Ar40 (argon-40). Argon is a very special element. It’s one of the group of heroism 3.5, elements called noble gases or inert gases. Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only house, as single atoms. It doesn’t form chemical compounds with any other element, not even the most active ones. It’s a fairly large atom, so it would have trouble slipping into title, a dense crystal’s molecular structure. Jay Gatsbys? By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in heroism 3.5, nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto jay gatsbys house other atoms tenaciously. What does this mean? It means that potassium can get into minerals quite easily, but argon can’t. It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an tragedy and the atom of potassium inside the mineral, the argon is trapped in the mineral. Jay Gatsbys House? So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as a result of K40 decay. We know K40’s half-life, and we know the probability of K40 decaying to Ar40 instead of Ca40. That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample.

However, again it’s important to remember that we’re dealing with assumptions , and we always have to at coole, keep in mind that our assumptions may be wrong. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system? What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to house, produce what we did find plus what escaped.

If more K40 has decayed than we think, then it’s been decaying longer than we think, so the mineral must be older than we think. In other words, a mineral that has lost argon will be older than the result we get says it is. In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An isochron dating method ( isochron dating is described in the next section) can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances. When isochron dating can be used, the result is a much more accurate date. Method 4: Rubidium-Strontium Dating. Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. The nuclide rubidium-87 (Rb87) decays to strontium-87 (Sr87) with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides. If three minerals form at book title, the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the jay gatsbys, different strontium nuclides. (Remember, chemical processes can’t differentiate between nuclides). The total amount of strontium might be different in in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville, the different minerals, but the ratios will be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral has a lot of Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals crystallize there is a fixed ratio of jay gatsbys house, Rb87:Sr87. As time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr-87, resulting in book title maker, a change in jay gatsbys house, the Rb87:Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville, other nuclides of jay gatsbys, strontium. The decrease in the Rb87:Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of title maker, Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the two ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as a straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an isochron . The line’s slope then translates directly into jay gatsbys house, a figure for the age of the rock that contains the different minerals. The power of the Rb/Sr dating method is enormous, for how many types of computers, it provides multiple independent ways of jay gatsbys, verifying the accuracy of the isochron . When every one of four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the common man analysis, isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt. House? Contaminated or otherwise bad samples stand out like a lighthouse beacon, because they don’t show a good isochron line. There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: the samarium-neodymium, lutetium-hafnium, rhenium-osmium, and lead isochron methods just to name a few. However, I simply haven’t time or room to deal with all of them. For further information on all methods of radiometric dating, please refer to and the, Gunter Faure’s textbook PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY. A full cite for this book is given in the bibliography. III . Possible Sources of Error. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs.-evolution debate? Every method of radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for jay gatsbys house, the Earth.

For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of title, radiometric dating. House? They have two ways to do this. They can criticize the heroism 3.5, science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and jay gatsbys house experimental error in the laboratory analyses of heroism 3.5, radioactivity levels and house nuclide ratios. Option 1: Criticize the Essay Authority in Bartleby by Herman Melville, Theory. Is there any way to criticize the theory of jay gatsbys, radiometric dating? Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to on Weak Authority in Bartleby the Scrivener Melville, question. Answer: yes, two of them are.

Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for a fact, that half-lives are constant (axiom 1)? Do we know for jay gatsbys house, a fact that nuclide ratios are constant (axiom 2)? Regarding the first question: There are sound theoretical reasons for accept- ing the constancy of nuclide half-lives, but the on Weak Authority in Bartleby by Herman, reasons are based in the remote and esoteric reaches of quantum mechanics, and I don’t intend to get into that in jay gatsbys house, this article. However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of the Scrivener by Herman Melville, it. Do we have observational evidence? The answer is jay gatsbys yes. On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the radiation produced by supernovas. In a supernova, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and heroism 3.5 fission. Some of these nuclides are radioactive. We can detect the jay gatsbys house, presence of the various nuclides by spectrographic analysis of the supernova’s radiation.

We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in those nuclides. Title Maker? We can use that information to calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of that nuclide made here on Earth. Now, because light travels at a fixed rate (a bit under 300,000 kilometers per second), and because stars are so far away, when we look at house, a distant star we’re seeing it as it was when that light left it and headed this way. When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 light-years away, we’re seeing that star as it was 2,700,000 years ago. And when we look at Authority the Scrivener by Herman Melville, a supernova in house, the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,700,000 years old, we see nuclides with the tragedy and the common man analysis, exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth. Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What about nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Well, let’s think about it: Minerals form by recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the jay gatsbys house, elements involved.

The chemical behavior of an element depends on maker, its size and the number of electrons in its outer shell. This is the foundation of the jay gatsbys house, periodic table of the elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and fifty years. The shell structure depends only on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its nucleus. So the book maker, shell structure doesn’t change between different nuclides of the jay gatsbys house, same element. K39 is chemically identical to how many types of computers, K40; the only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry. (Note: It’s true that some natural processes favor some isotopes over others. Water molecules containing oxygen-16 are lighter and jay gatsbys therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen-18.

However, as far as is how many known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon. The atoms used in jay gatsbys house, radiometric dating techniques are mainly heavy atoms, so we can still use the axiom that mineral-forming processes can’t distinguish between different nuclides.) So the processes that are involved in mentoring, mineral formation can’t distinguish between nuclides. House? Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form a mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

Option 2: Criticize the Techniques. So, we’ve seen that radiometric dating techniques are built on how many types are there, a sound theoretical basis. The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. A contaminated rock sample is useless for dating. A sample that is house taken from the surface, where atoms could get in and out easily, is also useless.

Samples must be taken by coring, from deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down into its component elements using any of title maker, several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer. If the lab technique is sloppy, the date produced isn’t reliable. There’s no way to eliminate the possibility of error. It can’t be done. Jay Gatsbys? Mistakes can always happen -- Murphy’s Law rules in science as much as in any other field of human endeavor. Types Of Computers? (For those who have never encountered it, Murphy’s Law is the simple rule that in any field of human endeavor, anything that can go wrong will go wrong.) But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the jay gatsbys, dates produced can be accepted as accurate. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at and the common, different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small.

Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded. If the researcher doing the jay gatsbys, work can find and document a specific problem in analysis that could produce precisely that observed wrong result, then it’s virtually certain the odd-man-out is an error. A 90% success ratio in a technique that requires such delicate, accurate work is very impressive. And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. In any case, while it’s true that there are numerous possible sources of error, there is no source of book, error that could account for the enormous difference between the 6000-year age demanded by jay gatsbys house young-Earth creationists and heroism 3.5 the 3.5-billion-year radiometric age for the oldest known rocks on jay gatsbys, Earth. It’s completely illogical to think that these techniques could be wrong by man analysis that much. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques basically fall into three categories: 1) Creationists often claim that radiometric dates are unreliable because the entire theory is based on jay gatsbys house, invalid assumptions. Essay On Weak The Scrivener By Herman Melville? We’ve already seen that this doesn’t hold up under examination.

The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. 2) Creationist geologists compile long lists of dates obtained by radiometric techniques that deviate widely from the normally accepted values. Jay Gatsbys House? Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. Leadership Mentoring? He’s compiled a list of several hundred radiometric dates that are widely divergent from the house, values accepted by conventional geology. Based on this, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the tragedy and the common man analysis, whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

In general, such claims are revealed as flawed by what they don’t say more than by house what they do say. In an article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research Quarterly , Woodmorappe listed 350-odd aberrant dates, and claimed that there are many, many more. What he did not say is that those 350 were winnowed out of tens of thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. If we run dating tests on 500 samples and book maker 350 (70% of the total tests) are scattered all over house the place, with only a few anywhere near the expected values, then we clearly have a serious problem. But if we run dating tests on 10,000 samples and get 350 aberrant results (3.5% of the total), that could easily be simple experimental error. If we test fifty samples from the same rock formation and we get 2 ages of 1 million years, 2 ages of 500 million years, and 46 ages all clustered around 175 million years, it’s not a great leap of logic to conclude that the 4 aberrant results were in error, and mentoring the 46 clustered results are probably correct. 3) Some creationists produce radiometric dates of their own that show that radiometric dating produces illogical, contradictory results. A classic example of this tactic is a claim by creationist geologist Steve Austin that rocks taken from Recent lava flows on the Uinkaret Plateau at the top of the Grand Canyon produce older dates than rocks taken from the bottom of the canyon, when both samples are dated using the jay gatsbys house, Rb87/Sr87 isochron method. This appears to be a serious blow against how many types are there, the Rb/Sr isochron technique, but in his article A Criticism of ICR's Grand Canyon Dating Project, Chris Stassen points out that Austin made a critical error in his work.

The samples he took from the Plateau are from different rock formations. House? For any type of radiometric dating to work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. So it’s not surprising that Austin ’s results make no sense. We’re still not done, though. Authority In Bartleby The Scrivener? If all we had was the radiometric techniques that I’ve described, there would remain a possibility (a miniscule one, but a real possibility nonetheless) that the entire idea is grievously wrong, that some as-yet-undetected factor is throwing off all the hundreds and thousands of radiometric dates that have been produced based on rock samples from all around Earth and even beyond it. But we have more than that.

We have several methods completely unrelated to radioactivity which serve as independent checks on the radiometric dating techniques. For example, in 1838, the American geologist James Dwight Dana made a systematic survey of the Hawaiian Islands . He noted that the islands become more heavily eroded as you move from Hawaii toward the northwest. He interpreted this to mean that the islands become older as you move northwest along the jay gatsbys, chain. When rock samples were taken from the mentoring, Hawaiian Islands and dated radiometrically , they agreed with Dana’s conclusions of over a century before. House? The islands do indeed become older as you move northwest. And the degree of erosion corresponds roughly with the radiometric dates. No island in the chain is dated as being significantly older than the erosion rate implies, nor is any island in types are there, the chain dated as being significantly younger than the erosion rate indicates.

Both modern corals and fossil corals deposit daily and annual growth bands. By careful analysis of these bands, we can tell how many days there were in a year when the jay gatsbys house, coral was growing. For modern corals, this technique yields 365 day-bands per Essay Authority Melville, year, more or less, just as it should. For corals that grew in house, formations identified as Early Devonian, the technique shows a little over 400 day-bands per types are there, year. Astronomers can measure the rate at which Earth’s rotation is slowing. House? Assuming the rate of heroism 3.5, slowing has remained constant, a day-count of 400 days per year indicates an age of roughly 400 million years. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically , we get dates of roughly 400 million years.

Yet another cross-check on radiometric dating is provided by plate tectonics. The plates that form the Earth’s surface are moving at a measurable rate. There are several ways of measuring this movement that themselves have nothing to do with radiometric dating. The plate that forms the Pacific Ocean basin is jay gatsbys house moving northwest at at a known rate. Geologists generally accept that the Hawaiian Islands have been formed by upwelling of tragedy, magma from a ‘hot spot’ in the Earth’s mantle, below the seafloor. Jay Gatsbys House? The Pacific Plate is moving; the at coole, hot spot remains fixed; and the result is a series of volcanic islands growing upward over the hot spot. Between Hawaii and house Midway Island (2400km northwest of Hawaii ) are some thirty volcanoes, active and leadership mentoring extinct. Many of these volcanoes have had lava flows dated by the potassium-argon method. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Particularly striking is the jay gatsbys, correlation for Midway Island itself. By drift rate it should be about 27 million years old.

By K- Ar dating, the volcanic rock that forms Midway's core is 27.7 million years old. Two other island chains that are located over Pacific Plate hot spots show substantially similar patterns of motion to the Hawaiian Islands . They both correlate well with other measurements of the Pacific Plate’s motion. And their radiometric dates match as well. Three independent methods of on Weak in Bartleby the Scrivener, dating these islands, and they all agree within acceptable ranges of house, error. What are the chances of all three being wrong in leadership mentoring, such ways as to house, produce the same wrong answer?

There’s no way to maker, calculate them, but I’d say they’re so miniscule that you’d have better odds of hitting the house, state lottery five times in a row. One more example, just to wrap things up. In the Essay on Weak in Bartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville, late sixties, two geologists identified a specific reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field using the rocks in Olduvai Gorge in Africa . Jay Gatsbys House? ( Olduvai Gorge is how many of computers are there famous as one of the best sites in jay gatsbys, the world for early hominid fossils.) They called this reversal the wild swans at coole, Olduvai Event. A few years later, another geologist, Neil Opdyke , was taking samples of sea-floor rock and found that he could identify the house, Olduvai Event in his cores. Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of heroism 3.5, magnetic field reversals. After carefully analyzing the sedimentation rates in his cores, Opdyke concluded that the Olduvai Event had spanned a period from house, roughly 1.85 million to about 1.5 million years ago.

Obtaining radiometric dates from on Weak the Scrivener Melville, Olduvai Gorge is difficult for jay gatsbys, several reasons, but one of the few dates that’s considered solid comes from a specific layer of volcanic tuff called ‘Tuff 1B’. This tuff occurs near the bottom of the Olduvai Event. It was dated in 1959 using the potassium-argon method. The date produced was approximately 1.8 million years ago. Far from being rickety constructs full of sources of error and unproven assumptions, radiometric dating techniques are actually on a very sound theoretical and procedural basis.

To destroy that basis, creationists would have to destroy much of of computers, chemistry and a lot of atomic physics too. The periodic table is the bedrock on which modern chemistry is built. The constancy of the velocity of light is a basic axiom of Einstein’s theories of relativity, theories which have passed every test physicists could devise. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. In short, everything we know in chemistry and in physics points to house, radiometric dating as being a viable and leadership valuable method of calculating the ages of igneous and metamorphosed igneous rocks. House? To question it seems to be beyond the bounds of reason. To charge thousands of chemists all over the world with mass incompetence also seems to be beyond the bounds of wild swans at coole, reason. Radiometric dating has been used ever more widely for the past forty years. The dates produced have gotten steadily more precise as lab techniques and instrumentation has been improved. House? There is simply no logical reason to throw this entire field of heroism 3.5, science out the window.

There is jay gatsbys house no reason to believe the theory is on Weak the Scrivener by Herman Melville faulty, or to believe that thousands of different chemists could be so consistently wrong in jay gatsbys, the face of the Scrivener, every conceivable test. Further, radiometric dates can be checked by other dating techniques. Jay Gatsbys? When they are, the dates almost always agree within the range of expected error. In cases where the dates don’t agree, it’s always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Creationists are forced to challenge radiometric dating because it stands as the how many are there, most powerful and most damning evidence against their idea of a young Earth.

But in jay gatsbys, the end, they are reduced to saying that radiometric dating must be wrong, because we know it happened this way. Heroism 3.5? And that is not a scientific position. If theory says it happened this way and evidence says it happened that way, theory must be revised to fit the evidence. Creationists won’t do that. That reveals creation ‘science’ to be a sham, and not any kind of science at all. Information on the nature of atoms, half-lives, and types of radioactive decay was taken from ATOM : Journey Across the Subatomic Cosmos, by Isaac Asimov (c. Nightfall, Inc., 1991). Information on radiometric dating techniques comes from a variety of sources, including the Asimov book cited above, and these: PRINCIPLES OF ISOTOPE GEOLOGY, 2nd Ed. c. John Wiley Sons, 1986.

EARTH THEN AND NOW , 2nd Ed. Carla W. Montgomery and jay gatsbys house David Dathe. c. Wm C. Swans? Brown, Publishers, 1994. Scientific Creationism vs. Evolution: The Mislabeled Debate Kenneth R. Miller. Essay in jay gatsbys, SCIENCE AND CREATIONISM. Edited by Ashley Montagu.

c. Oxford Press, 1984. (This essay contains an excellent explanation of the swans, rubidium-strontium isochron dating method.) GROLIER’S ACADEMIC AMERICAN ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1994 ed. Articles on Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating, and jay gatsbys related subjects. Multimedia CD-ROM distributed by Grolier Electronic Publishing.

Information on creationist critiques of radiometric dating, and how many of computers the flaws in jay gatsbys house, those critiques, comes primarily from these sources: The Unreliability of Radiometric Dating Uploaded to CompuServe’s Dinosaur/Paleontology Forum Library 13 as JDATIN. TXT. Evaluation of ICR Grand Canyon Research Project. This paper is available on the World Wide Web at the FAQ Archive, File uploaded to CompuServe Religion Forum. (Note: Glenn Morton is an old-Earth creationist, not an evolutionist. I’m using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappe’s claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position.) Information on the independent cross-checks for radiometric dates comes mainly from wild at coole, these sources:

On the Hawaiian Islands chain: ‘The Evolution of the Pacific’ Heezen , Bruce and MacGregor , Ian. c. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Nov. 1973. Reprinted in CONTINENTS ADRIFT AND CONTINENTS AGROUND, Scientific American Press, 1976. On the Olduvai Event: LUCY ’S CHILD: The Discovery of jay gatsbys house, a Human Ancestor.

Donald Johanson and James Shreeves. c. 1989, Wm Morrow and Company, Inc. On the maker, length of the year as shown by jay gatsbys coral growth patterns: A TRIP THROUGH TIME: Principles of mentoring, Historical Geology, 2nd Ed . John Cooper, Richard Miller, and Jacqueline Patterson. c. Merrill Publishing, 1990. A Calendar in the Coral, pp. 307-8.

These sources are supplemented by references in other books, numerous threads on several CompuServe forums, and jay gatsbys house other papers and articles downloaded from CompuServe and the World Wide Web.

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Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by jay gatsbys, Henrik Ibsen. Tragedy Common? The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time, as it concludes with the protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to discover herself. Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and house, judges who assess feminine conduct from Essay Authority in Bartleby by Herman Melville, a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by many to jay gatsbys house, be the father of and the, modern prose drama, was born in Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828. He was the second of six children.

Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of his early life living in poverty. House? From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in Bergen and in what is now Oslo (then called Christiania). At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline. Like much of wild swans at coole, his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and wife should live as equals, free to become their own human beings. This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in house, his society.

In general, the play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of how many of computers, women have.’ At the beginning of jay gatsbys house, A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy. She responds affectionately to Authority in Bartleby, Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of her children and friends. She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized. Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16).

In fact she seems to jay gatsbys house, enjoy and even play into it. When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree. So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in with tons of mentoring, Christmas presents, and jay gatsbys, shrug at the idea of leadership, incurring debt. Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the other hand the other female in the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. This lady has been through a lot. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and jay gatsbys, hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”. In this paper I want to show that at time women used to sacrifice everthing for their husbands.

Still then they were not considered to know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for book maker her husband that she can. SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. House? That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and ambition. Additionally, the fact that she was willing to break the law in order to at coole, ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and jay gatsbys house, the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to how many types, her unfulfilled and underappreciated potential. ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. House? Nora comes to realize that in addition to heroism 3.5, her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is not in order to fulfill the role that Torvald, her father, and house, society at large have expected of her. Though Nora is economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner.

Torvald issues decrees and condescends to types of computers, Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from him because she knows Torvald could never accept the jay gatsbys house idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to swans, pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to jay gatsbys, Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’. Nora’s abandonment of her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and wild, her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to house, leave them. Title Maker? Nora truly believes that the house nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in their best interest. Nora’s understanding of the on Weak in Bartleby meaning of freedom evolves over the course of the play.

In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to jay gatsbys, her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of book title, freedom and questions whether she is happy in Torvald’s house, subjected to his orders and house, edicts. By the end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and and the man analysis, identity. Mrs. Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for jay gatsbys house the sake of her family. Rather than marrying the dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and her two younger brothers. Heroism 3.5? In order to jay gatsbys, sever herself from her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and her mother is dead.

Her husband has passed away, too. Mr. Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs. Leadership Mentoring? Still, Christine is finally free. It’s true that Christine is free from the responsibilities of house, family, but she absolutely hates it. The Scrivener By Herman? She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother.

We two need each other”. Jay Gatsbys House? It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by society, that the only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. How Many Types Of Computers Are There? On the other hand, it’s not like Christine is making this decision from a place of ignorance. Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. Jay Gatsbys? The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and that of the Helmers seems to swans at coole, be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the union of Nils and Christine is Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of jay gatsbys, all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock”

A Doll’s House ends with the on Weak Authority slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the world. It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the least. Some might even call it foolish. She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills. No home. No prospects of any kind. Jay Gatsbys House? By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the society she’s always been a part of.

Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out with her. The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. So, why does she do such a thing? Nora makes he reason for her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. Heroism 3.5? Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and house, children she is Essay on Weak Authority in Bartleby, forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Jay Gatsbys? Nora doesn’t see it this way. She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the maker male-female relationship in A Doll’s House is based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and Helmer evolves according to a Master-Slave relationship. Hegel argues that the jay gatsbys house consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on each other and that self-consciousness led to types are there, Nora’s awakening in jay gatsbys house, the end.

Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and between her and the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the swans self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by house, superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to on Weak, itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of house, itself in the other and heroism 3.5, thus lets the other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on her which leads her to supersede him and be free of him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by Hendrik Ibsen. House? I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in the characters of how many types, Mrs. Linde and house, Nora. A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages.

These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and Nora have a relationship where there is no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the submissive role in a society where the lady plays the passive role. Book Maker? Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave. He too considers himself superior to her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to jay gatsbys house, engage in an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to a compromise. A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of Nora is their parallel in tragedy common man analysis, characters.

Both are willing to jay gatsbys house, sacrifice themselves for values dear to their lives. This act of aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora. It gives us an image of who the character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to heroism 3.5, her family when she did not think that she ‘had the house right’ to refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. Mentoring? After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money. She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in this society family is top priority.

To the jay gatsbys women is this era, loyalty to their loved ones is Essay on Weak Authority, highly expected. Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of women sacrificing for their families. They both (Mrs. Linde and jay gatsbys house, Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in on Weak the Scrivener by Herman Melville, helping their significant others by sacrificing themselves. Nora’s character is made more obvious to us by Mrs. Linde’s actions. Not only did Nora open her mouth about house, saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride. Claiming to types of computers, have raised all the money herself she soaks in her self-importance.

In Act 1, Nora seems to thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs. Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in her life. Mrs. Jay Gatsbys House? Linde is referring to on Weak Authority the Scrivener, the sacrifice she has made.

She makes a remark about Nora still being a child. As if to jay gatsbys house, say that she was inexperienced. She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and that if she is to learn, then she will have to experience that for herself. This remark tells us that Nora is capable of choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to tragedy common man analysis, be herself before she can be a wife or mom for that matter.

Norma Helmer is the best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in house, a society where the mentoring male oppresses the female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything. Nora Helmer is that doll living in jay gatsbys house, her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and Essay on Weak the Scrivener, the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the best models of the ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. Jay Gatsbys House? She has to spend some time figuring out who she is as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll. This would be impossible under the smothering presence of Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion.

The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the heroism 3.5 ‘Other’. She is aware that it is she who agreed to the definition of the ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her. House? Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about book title, what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an abyss of ugliness! You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the woman seems to jay gatsbys house, be the inessential which never becomes the essential, it is swans at coole, because she herself fails to jay gatsbys, bring about the change.

But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. Common? The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in jay gatsbys house, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of leadership mentoring, this page in house, your own work, you need to leadership mentoring, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen . Available from: [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of jay gatsbys, this content and no longer wish to heroism 3.5, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to house, request removal: 28-05-17 - Things Fall Apart Novel Analysis 15-05-17 - Every Trip Is A Quest 21-12-16 - Identity in Modern American Literature 13-11-16 - Abdul-Rahman Munif 05-11-16 - The Period of Maturity - The formation of an imagined community in Cities of Salt. - The Other Side of Silence 04-11-16 - “The False Moon” by Shirley Golden - Barker, Waters and Morrison – history in their writing - ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARABIC NOVEL. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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