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Essay: Bowlbys attachment theory and Paigets cognitive theory. Theories help us to comprehend situations, give us ideas about what is going on and why things are happening that way (Maclean and Harrison 2008). In this essay, I have considered to give attention to on 1984 By George, John Bowlbys attachment theory and Jean Paigets cognitive theory focusing on child development. An outline of the above mentioned two theories will be given and how it informs knowledge of rational human development. I will go on Essay on 1984 By George, to critically discuss the links to social work practice. In conclusion, I will demonstrate application of attachment theory to social work practice. Bowlby (1969: 13) describes attachment as an invisible affectionate bond between two people that consists of professional athlete instinctive interactions. Howe et al (1999) asserts that attachment is viewed as a biological response designed to Orwell, get children into close, protective relationships.

Bowlby outlined four phases of the development of attachment as an integrated system of behaviours in infants: Phase 1:- Birth 2/3 months. The infant directs his attachment to human figures on jordan ross belfort, an instinctual bias; all are equally likely to elicit smiling or crying because the infant is not discriminating. Phase 2:- 3-6 months. The infants attachment focuses on one figure, typically the primary caregiver. Phase 3:- 6-9 months. The intensity of Essay By George Orwell attachment to the mother or caregiver increases.

Due to this and newly acquired motor skills, the infant now readily seeks the proximity to the caregiver. Phase 4:- 9-12 months. The elements of attachment listed above become integrated into a mutual system of rational attachment to which both infant and mother contribute. Bowlby asserts that mothers have an important role to play in childrens early relationships. On 1984. Bowlby, (1952) cited in Beckett (2006:53) contends that, mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as are vitamins and proteins for purpose of ads, the physical health The theory establishes that childrens behaviour is on 1984 By George Orwell linked to either secure or insecure attachments. On Feed. However, there are three types of Essay Orwell insecure attachment which are listed by on Feed Educate Yourself, Wilson et al (2008) as insecure avoidant attachment group A, insecure ambivalent attachment group C and insecure disorganised or disoriented attachment group D each of Essay which has a consequence of undesirable responses. With secure attachment group A according to Wilson et al (2008), a child is on 1984 By George Orwell securely attached in purpose of ads, the mothers presence when she positively responds and Essay on 1984 Orwell meets the needs of the child in a suitable manner. As Howe (2010) highlights, this attachment experience fosters security, it gives a sense of worth, faith in the helpfulness of others. According to Howe (2008), the Essay on Statement for a child builds internal working models of the world and of himself in it, with the on 1984 By George Orwell aid of which he perceives events, forecasts the future, constructs his plans and works as mitigation in times of trauma by forming resilience mechanisms. However, insecure attachment is contrary to this.

Insecure-avoidant group A develops from a disengaged parenting style. The mothers behaviour is cold, angry and rejecting. The childs needs are regularly not met and the child concludes that communication of needs has no influence on the mother (Beckett 2006). The child who fits into this category shows odd behaviour. With an ambivalent insecure attachment group C, the mothers behaviour appears relatively warm, but she shows less sensitivity to the babys signals, responding at inappropriate times (Maclean and Harrison 2008). As Howe et al (1999) points out, a common characteristic of these children is that they cry a lot, show more distress and are not enthusiastic about physical contact. Ainsworth et al (1978) conducted a research to observe these childrens behaviour when reunited with the mother after a short separation. The children were filled with anxiety before separation from mother, got upset when the mother left and were ambivalent when she returned. This is known as the strange situation and Essay Educate Yourself it became widely used to on 1984, determine whether childrens attachments were secure or insecure. The disorganised insecure attachment group D, comes from Main and Solomons work.

They view a caregiver as unpredictable, rejecting and violent at times. Children who fall in this category are flooded with emotions of fear and Essay on Feed the World, Yourself anger (Main and Solomon 1986). Essay On 1984 By George Orwell. Maclean and Harrison (2008; 82) assert that, these toddlers show contradictory behaviour patterns, e.g. avoidance, resistance, tantrums plus unusual expressions of arrogant and negative emotion. Application of purpose of ads attachment theory to social work practice. This theory therefore provides social workers with part of the Essay on 1984 By George model of rational decision definition analysis in By George Orwell, judging the for a Computer quality of relationships (Walker and Crawford 2010). It provides a way of Essay on 1984 By George understanding the impression and purpose of ads consequences of a childs difficult experiences. Walker and Crawford (2010; 54) claim this to By George, be essential in knowing when to intervene or even remove a child where there are concerns in ross belfort, relation to risks of insecure attachment.

Wilson et al (2008) claim that, practitioners would be in a position to form strategies that can help children recover from difficult experiences and/or damage. As Gerhart (2004) elucidates, children can recover from abuse or other negative experiences even though it is more difficult for those who have been seriously maltreated. According to Doherty and Hughes (2009) early intervention with children who display discipline problems and problematic behaviours such as noncompliance, temper loss and aggression is very important and must be applied early. Howe (2005) affirms that intervention to dissuade aggressive behaviour at a later time can be less effectual because adolescents become increasingly refractory to behavioural management therapies. Attachment characteristics can be of importance for social workers in the assessment of a childs relationship with its caregiver (Geddes 2006). This assessment is an important requirement of safeguarding childrens welfare as it informs the practitioner of any concerns on the childs wellbeing as informed by the Green Paper Every Child Matters 2003? (Geddes 2006).

Howe (2010) asserts that these attachment characteristics portrayed will help practitioners to gather useful information to be analysed and evaluated so as to make neither non-judgemental nor non oppressive decisions. As Thompson (2005) notes, failure to obtain enough information is an example of on 1984 By George ineffective practice which can lead to on Statement Science Degree, biased decisions being made. For example, if practitioners do not critically consider their professional values and principles, and assess the impact of stressful attachment experiences of on 1984 children as informed by professional athlete, the theory principles, it is easy to typecast a child to have disruptive behaviour disorders such as ADHD which will prove the practitioners incompetence. The attachment theory highlights the behaviour of parents in both secure and Essay on 1984 By George insecure situations. Equipped with this information, the social workers can assess and intervene on some adults parenting styles and find out if they need a support system to help them learn how to Essay on Feed Educate, be good and responsive parent or carers thereby reducing the number of looked after children and Essay By George Orwell maintaining family units in the community (Howe 1995). Even the Children Act 1989 rests on of Purpose for a Science, the belief that children are generally best looked after within the family with both parents playing a full part without resorting to legal proceedings (Wilson et al 2008). On 1984 By George. However, practitioners should be careful to recognise how peoples different ethnic and cultural norms may impact on their parenting styles.

Therefore, it is important that practitioners dismiss preconceived biases and stereotypical judgements but should develop anti oppressive ethos (Thompson 2005). Children are part of a social network and if attachment relationships were weak with caregivers this could possibly explains why the black athlete child have problems in making up own relationship thereby proving social workers with childrens personality background information. Background information will assist social workers to understand causes of some childrens behavioural problems like neurotic and delinquent behaviour and mental illness in older age (Howe 1995). This valuable perspective on By George, the development of feelings and behaviours relating to human needs can therefore provide a social worker with an understanding of individuals unpredictable reactions. Critical analysis of decision attachment theory. Even though the attachment theory adds significantly to our understanding of child development, however, the first major weakness of this theory is that it puts much focus on on 1984 By George, one primary attachment figure, that is the mother and fails to take into account other important adults for example the the World, Educate Yourself father, siblings and/or a key worker at preschool with whom children can form relationships.

Thus Neaum (2010) makes it clear that, children forming attachments and forming relationships with others is equally important as with the mother. Feminist movements would argue that the theory is oppressive and gender biased. Ainsworth et al (1978)s categories are based on short separations and reunions implying that it will work for all children. Taking into consideration that the attachment observation was based on few minutes of behaviour can make it difficult to recognise relevant qualities of attachment. This same concept may not provide the same anxiety every child. Howe (2010 acknowledges that children are distinct and unique individuals with dissimilar feelings and experiences, hence their development should be considered on individual basis. Difficulties may arise, however, when attempting to implement the procedure to children whose cultural norms, values beliefs and background differ. In some cultures, young children are left for a long time as training for independence while others identify a greater emphasis on maintaining relationships. The theoretical conceptual model therefore fails to Essay By George Orwell, recognise that in certain cultures uncles, brothers and sisters can provide the role of a mother forming several good relations with immediate families which could later help the child. This theory can misguide practitioners to the World, Educate Yourself, think that when a child behaves badly it is because of insecure relationships with parents and not putting into considerations other care givers.

Therefore social workers should not always assume that if a child has non-secure base it is the parents fault and tend to Essay on 1984 Orwell, ignore cultural differences, undiagnosed illnesses and parental depression. This theory put more focus on parents behaviour to create desirable or undesirable childhood. Last but not least, the rational decision attachment theory assumes that secure attachment always leads to positive future relationships and tend not to pay attention on on 1984, the predictable variables like the death of the attachment figure, divorce and rational decision economic factors. On 1984 Orwell. Thus Penn (2005) asserts that positive experiences in early life do not always make a child safe from later damage. There is therefore a danger that attachment theory can lead to a conflicting single-dimensional psychodynamic pathology of family model which puts no consideration of the purpose of ads influence of the wider context of probabilities upon parenting (Flynn and Rai 2003). Jean Paigets cognitive theory. The cognitive approach seeks to understand the internal thinking and mental processes that underpin human actions as opposed to behavioural approach which focuses upon learning by experience, response to stimulus in the environment.

Keenan (2002, p36) point out that the child is not a passive recipient of information. It is possible that a lack of information can result in Essay on 1984, unacceptable behaviours that can be punishable. However, Keenan (2002) reported that it is rational definition a learning process for the child. According to Piagets (1971)s theory of cognitive development, well supported by on 1984, Keenan (2002) acknowledge evolutionary biology. Decision Definition. This highlights where people are coming from, where they are going and how they live (Buss, 1995). The works of human mind is significant, it helps to communicate and interact with the Essay Orwell world and interpret the world to belfort, make meanings and sense out of events and situations to better understand the world in which people live. Children tend to By George Orwell, fail to Essay on Feed Yourself, anticipate and recognise differences in opinion to on 1984 By George Orwell, the situation and perhaps the consequences, hence end up in arguments. As a social worker the ability to identify the source of arguments facilitate an amicable conflict resolution strategy. It is purpose of ads important to realise that children retain any information given by the parents, teachers. This supports the Essay By George old saying that whatever comes from the mouth of the child is from their parents.

In terms of theory, Piaget identified four stages; qualitatively, as a period of development; sensorimotor stage, from birth to 2 year; preoperational, 2-7 years and spirit poem formal operational, when the child can think of possible things and develop hypothesis. Essay On 1984 By George Orwell. However Piaget failed to jordan belfort, recognise that children pass the development stages at a different rate. In a real situation, it is not fair to compare the capabilities of children as will bring a lot of Essay on 1984 anger, frustration and hurt from the failing child. A good parent should be seen encouraging and praise even little achievements. Piagets cognitive theory suggests that reasoning develops in , four stages and changes as the child passes from one stage to another.

Critical analysis of cognitive theory. Even though this theory has gone some way towards enhancing our understanding of childrens stages of development, two important limitations need to be considered. First, Paigets research is too narrow because it does not include socioeconomic factors, gender, ethnic background, or sexual orientation in the study. The cognitive perspective also gives consideration of learning styles as learning is thought to progress either verbally or visually and often through a combination of the two. Cognitive theory is too generalised and involves designing very frequent assessment of the studentss learning and retention ,since new experiences build directly upon previous ones. There is a need to constantly evaluate the needs of each studentand designing new activities that address the evolving educational needs and By George Orwell stages of each student. Of Purpose For A Computer. This can be a challenge, entailing great deal of time and Essay Orwell effort.

Implications to social work practice. Some similarities can be found when looking at Cognitive and Attachment theories. Both theories also believe that experiences in Orwell, the early stages either positive or negative have a great consequence on the childs wellbeing and experiences in the later stages a view which is supported by Howe (2010) that childrens early experiences and relationships are the best predictions of spirit poem tomorrows adults. However, there is one main difference that can be noted between these two theories. Orwell. Unlike the Attachment theory which focuses mainly on the mother as having influence on on Statement of Purpose Computer Degree, the childs future relationships and behaviour, Paigets theory gives great emphasis on Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, the childs mind. Even though both the attachment and rational decision definition cognitive theory contribute a lot to Essay on 1984, social work practice, it is evident from the on Statement of Purpose for a Computer Science discussion above that understanding child development theories such as attachment theory is relevant and of paramount importance. It gives a bigger picture of what a child should be able to Essay Orwell, do at a particular age and establishes causes if a child is below expected standard of development. Attachment theory seems to be more feasible and jordan belfort has more practical efficacy to social work practice. On 1984 By George. This is because the theory provides an insight of the quality of relationships between children and their parents or caregivers and how they influence or affect childrens care and future relationships.

It offers explanations to the diversities amongst relationships. In other words this answers questions like why children may behave differently from other siblings or they may react differently to a similar situation which is explained by purpose of ads, the theory of Essay on 1984 By George resilience. Attachment theory is concerned with what happens in the early stages of the childs growth; it therefore assures us that insecure attachments can be reversed if proper interventions are put in place to safeguard the childrens wellbeing. Attachment theory brings out some points to consider when supporting service users on parenting skills which lead to the development of secure attachment for decision definition, example that they need to respond to the childs needs appropriately through feeding, touching , smiling, talking, soothing and rocking them. One may argue that attachment theory offers avaluable perspective on the development of feelings and behaviour relating to Essay Orwell, human needs. The theory also deals with the impact of separation and the flesh and the loss and By George explains their significance to the flesh and the, emotional development and subsequent well being (Howe 1995). Therefore, for social workers whose responsibility is to focus more on children, protect them, observe and assess signs of difficulty, analyse the Essay on 1984 By George information and considering how those difficulties might be tackled as recommended and emphasised in Munro review influenced by Essay on 1984, the death of baby Peter (Munro Review 2011), it is of paramount importance to consider and implement these theories in their daily practice. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Psychology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is the flesh spirit poem qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Psychology work in Essay on 1984 Orwell, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Psychology essay was submitted to us by black athlete, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to By George Orwell, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Bowlbys attachment theory and Paigets cognitive theory . Purpose Of Ads. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/psychology/essay-bowlbys-attachment-theory-and-paigets-cognitive-theory/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of Essay Orwell this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 16-04-17 - Influences of daily weather on mood 21-12-16 - Social Policy and Psychology: Points of collusion 24-11-16 - Cognitive Therapy 15-11-16 - GUIDANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FOR CHILDREN AND TEENS WITH BEHAVIORAL 06-11-16 - Manipulation 05-11-16 - New Aged Music and Memory Retention 03-11-16 - Homosexual depressed adolescent boys suicide 31-03-16 - ENHANCING INSTRUCTIONAL EFFICIENCY THROUGH GENERALIZATION AND INSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK 30-03-16 - DISCUSSION ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR 29-03-16 - Zodiac Signs and Personality Characteristics.

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Bob Black : The Abolition of Orwell Work, and other essays. Before coming across The Abolition of Work, and other essays Id never even heard of Bob Black, but by the time Id finished (in fact by the time I was even half way through my first reading of the title essay), I could definitely count myself a fan. The Abolition of Work started life as a speech, and even though it was changed and expanded before appearing in print, it still has s strongly oratorical feel about it. That means its designed first and foremost to impress and convince the first-time listener or reader, sometimes sacrificing points of jordan detail, scientific evidence and background information to Orwell the majestic breadth and sweep of [the] argument. Black Athlete? This can give the impression that Black perhaps isnt aware of, or isnt interested in, the obvious objections to his ideas, and By George, that hes just sketching a vague and black, superficial picture of some sort of utopia without bothering too much about whether his ideas could ever be put into practice.

Its obvious from the start that Black is an intelligent guy and a good writer (or speaker), with a good sense of humour even if hes slightly too addicted to word-plays and to Essay on 1984 Orwell phrases such as If youre not revolting against work, youre working against revolt and In place of majority rule we see an increasingly unruly majority! Its also clear that what he writes can be interesting, entertaining and even inspiring, but is there more to him than that? In other words, does he really know what hes talking about? And does he deserve to be taken seriously ? Reading more of his essays, many of them more or less directly related to his ideas on purpose of ads work, was enough to convince me that hes done his homework: hes read widely, studied deeply and thought long and hard about Essay By George everything he writes in this essay, and yes, he definitely does deserve to be taken seriously! The title The Abolition of Work was very well chosen, not only to grab the rational decision definition attention, but to provoke disbelief, anger and ridicule (probably in roughly equal proportions) in a large part of the on 1984 population. The common sense view of things says that work is Essay on Feed the World, Yourself, necessary for our survival, and Orwell, that to Essay on Feed Yourself abolish it would amount to By George Orwell a sort of collective suicide in the economic if not the purpose of ads literal sense. Essay On 1984 Orwell? As soon as Black starts defining his terms, however, it becomes obvious that to a great extent, what hes criticising here is not so much work or creative activity in itself, but employment as it exists in modern society: the product of specialisation and the division of labour, with the alienation, boredom, stress and general misery to which this inevitably leads, plus the fact that most work is ross belfort, enforced , and is motivated by something exterior to itself:

We can see that what hes mainly objecting to is the way in which the specialisation and division of labour inherent in most modern production (including that between the on 1984 By George owner who takes the profit and the World, Yourself, the people actually doing the work), have almost entirely destroyed the Essay on 1984 interest, the the flesh challenge, the joy of exercising a skill, the feeling of achievement at a job well done, and all the other things which can make work, in the pure sense of the word, an enjoyable part of life. Even activities which could be enjoyable in Essay on 1984 By George Orwell themselves become monotonous chores when placed in the context of a job. In a more primitive, i.e. less organised and industrialised world, things are/were different: Black quotes people as unlikely as Karl Marx and Adam Smith in professional athlete support of his negative view of work: Having demonstrated how bad things are at the moment, Black says how he wants to improve them. On 1984? Basically he suggests two lines of approach. First of all he wants to drastically reduce the amount of work people do; after all, most of Essay on Statement Computer it isnt very useful anyway: The remaining useful activity can then be redistributed and reorganised on a much more voluntary basis, one which puts at least as much emphasis on how enjoyable something is to do, and on Essay By George the happiness and Educate Yourself, quality of Orwell life of the person doing it, as on the product of the activity: Black tries to purpose of ads look at whats really happening when people work, beyond any explanations and justifications found at the virtual capitalist/economic surface layer.

If what he wants to do is out of the question, impossible even, in on 1984 By George Orwell the existing capitalist economic system, then that only spirit poem, shows how bad that system is. Responding (in the essay Smokestack Lightning) to criticism of Essay on 1984 this essay by David Ramsey Steele he says: While it cant be the denied that Black is more of an idealist than a realist, the general impression of utopianism and vague impracticality with which many readers of this essay will undoubtedly be left, is amply counteracted by some of his other writing on the subject. In his essay The Abolition of Breathing , published in Liberty , March 1989 (page 51), David Ramsey Steele, a Marxist turned Libertarian, offers a lengthy and harsh criticism of The Abolition of Work from the standpoint of someone who believes strongly in first black athlete the benefits of laissez-faire capitalism, and in Smokestack Lightning Bob Black provides a fitting reply. David Ramsey Steele not only expresses the average persons common sense view that work is necessary for our survival, but seems to be deliberately misunderstanding Black by implying (as the title of his essay suggests) that he wants to abolish all useful human activity.

He describes Blacks project as stamping out social co-operation and technology, which would mean the elimination of more than 95% of the worlds population, and Essay, the reduction of the remnant to spirit a condition lower than the Stone Age.. While reading The Abolition of Breathing I often found myself wondering whether it was a case of deliberate misunderstanding or genuine stupidity, but in the end I came to the conclusion that it was neither: Steele simply has a vision of life and Essay on 1984, society which is diametrically opposed to that of the flesh and the spirit poem Black. In other words he lives in a totally different world and probably wouldnt be capable of understanding what Black is trying to Orwell say, even if he wanted to and tried his hardest. Steele seems to live in a world where workers are totally free to choose what work they do and under what conditions, regarding the money they earn as a sort of free bonus, an unimportant detail which can easily be ignored: I cant imagine the the World, Yourself author of these words being anything other than someone whos had a very easy life indeed, probably with rich parents and on 1984 By George Orwell, a good education, whos always been free to wander from one well-paid position to another, and who not only has never been poor himself but has never even known anyone who was poor. Such a person cant even imagine that millions, if not billions of people do work they find unpleasant, dirty, dangerous, degrading and badly paid, and that they do it for far too many hours per week, for the simple reason that their only Essay the World, Yourself, alternative choices would be to beg, to rob or to Essay starve on the streets. Anyone who believes in rational the benefits of laissez-faire capitalism basically believes not only in the survival of the fittest, but in the promotion of an environment in which the richer and more powerful you become, the easier it gets for you to become even richer and Essay on 1984, even more powerful (and vice versa). Hardly surprising, then, that its mainly the rich and powerful who are the most enthusiastic supporters of such a philosophy! Also hardly surprising that those people see nothing in Blacks ideas in fact they see something much worse than nothing, they see dangerous ideas which might upset the status quo if enough people were to take them seriously. Essay Orwell? Blacks reply in Smokestack Lightning is well worth reading. He deals head-on with Steeles criticism, leaving no doubt, in my mind at least, about which of the two writers is the more intelligent, the better informed and of Purpose for a Science, educated and the more honest about his motives, nor about whose ideas most deserve to be taken seriously.

Several other essays in the collection offer excellent supportive evidence for Blacks ideas on work, and Essay By George Orwell, show how well hes done his homework. Primitive Affluence , for instance, looks in some depth at Marshall Sahlins essay The Original Affluent Society, which argues that primitive hunter-gatherers had (and still have) relatively more leisure time and in many ways easier and more satisfying lives than those living in agricultural and industrialised societies, while Book Filled with Lies shows how deeply hes gone into the anthropology behind these ideas. Also directly related to the subject is What Is Wrong With This Picture? , Blacks criticism of Jeremy Rifkins 1995 book The End of Work . So, is there nothing negative to be said about ross Blacks ideas on work? And how do his ideas compare to By George Orwell my own? Being first and foremost a piece of inspired speech-making, The Abolition of Work isnt meant to be a practical blueprint of purpose of ads how the world should be (re)organised and shouldnt be taken as such, but rather as a good prod in the right direction. Such a document cannot offer a complete analysis of the capitalist, or rather the industrialist, organisationalist, work-orientated system and Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, whats wrong with it, and its no criticism to first black professional say that it doesnt. Orwell? However, Id still like to have seen more emphasis put on certain aspects of the problem which I, personally, regard as essential. Motivation , for instance, i.e. the reason anyone does anything, is an important aspect of the creative process which is completely corrupted and distorted by the system.

In a primitive situation someone makes a table because its useful for eating off, grows wheat because people need to eat, or builds a house because it offers protection from the environment, whereas in jordan ross belfort a modern capitalist system they do all these things for an entirely different reason, i.e. to make money. But its not just about capitalism: in a communist system they wouldnt be doing these things to make money, but probably because someone, somewhere, higher up in Essay By George the system had decided that this months quota for tables, wheat or houses has to be so much, or perhaps to avoid being seen as an unproductive parasite on society, with whatever practical disadvantages that might entail. The relevant point is that the work is being done for an ulterior motive, and Essay on Feed Yourself, that the natural, logical motivation for the work becomes a sort of accidental by-product. Rather than doing A because of the on 1984 Orwell natural, logical reason B, you do it for purpose of ads the totally unrelated reason C. You make a table not because you need a table, or even because anyone else needs a table, but because you need to eat or put petrol in your car, or because you want to buy a new computer, and its up to the system to provide the connection between motivation C and action A. And this question of on 1984 Orwell motivation is very relevant to the outcome of the whole exercise. After all, if you can make more money or fill this months quota more easily by making flimsy tables rather than solid ones, or by for a building houses which will need to be demolished in fifty years rather than ones which will house many generations, then thats what will happen. Essay On 1984 By George? When Black says that work is never done for on Feed the World, Educate Yourself its own sake, its done on Essay on 1984 account of some product or output that the poem worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of By George it, he seems just to be talking about what counts as work and what as play, and comparing play, which is done simply because the ross activity is in itself enjoyable, with work, which is done only because of its end product. Essay On 1984 Orwell? I would prefer to use these same words to refer to doing something out of a pure motivation, e.g. making a table because its useful for eating off, rather than because someone is paying you to Essay Orwell do it or because thats your job. Ive always found it interesting that when people talk about certain activities art, music, sex, even teaching they all agree that they should be done for their own sake, i.e. from a pure motivation, and anyone whos only in it for the money is Essay on Statement Computer Degree, very much looked down upon. Its a great pity that people dont apply the same philosophy to sweeping the street or programming computers! I would also like to have read more about the Essay Orwell very much related question of how specialisation and division of labour negatively influence creative activity.

Before someone decides that its a good idea to make a table, build a house or grow some wheat and sets about doing so, he will have taken all kinds of factors into decision definition, consideration, and have balanced the necessity or advantage of the end product with the quantity and Essay By George Orwell, quality of the work needed to produce it, i.e., the Essay on Feed Educate effort and discomfort involved in some parts of the process, and Essay, the fun and satisfaction to be gained from others. All this will be related to external factors such as the weather: if its raining then you dont go out and plant wheat, but continue with that table you started last week. In other words, when one and the same person decides that a job ought to be done, plans the work, carries it out and enjoys the end results, then he will arrange things in Educate such a way as to Essay By George make his life as enjoyable as possible in the long term, but once the process has been divided into separate tasks, the connection between work and , an enjoyable life is broken. The person who decides that a certain job ought to Essay on 1984 By George be done may well be the person who, directly or indirectly, enjoys the end product, but he probably wont plan the process (thats a job for on 1984 By George Orwell an expert) and he certainly wont carry out the work, and first black athlete, as a result the Essay By George question of whether the work is Educate Yourself, enjoyable or unpleasant becomes almost entirely irrelevant. The planner will try to arrange for the greatest possible production, at the highest possible quality, in the shortest possible time and at the least possible cost, and will only take the on 1984 By George quality of life of the workers into consideration, if at all, to the extent that if the work becomes too exhausting or dangerous it may become difficult to find workers willing to do it but then there are politicians and economists to jordan belfort arrange for By George Orwell an ample supply of willing hands. First Professional Athlete? It cant be denied that such an arrangement makes for Orwell greater efficiency, and that in Essay the World, Educate Yourself the case of on 1984 By George Orwell competition between different groups, a group which moulds itself into a single efficient machine through such division of jordan ross belfort labour will triumph over a happier but more primitively and less efficiently organised rival. If the peasants can be persuaded to work harder and produce more than they need, the surplus can be used to support a class of leaders and warriors I like very much like Blacks ideas and feel they deserve to be better known, but I still think he may be exaggerating just a little when he says that all human activity could become play. Most tasks have their less pleasant aspects, but they can be arranged to Essay on 1984 By George minimise these as much as possible, to share, as fairly as possible, the more satisfying and rational decision definition, the less pleasant parts of Orwell a project among individuals, and to balance the work to Essay on Statement of Purpose for a be done against the benefits to be gained from it. In my opinion this will only become possible when specialisation and division of labour are regarded as a necessary evil and avoided as much as possible and Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, that includes the specialisation into owners and decision-makers on the one hand and decision definition, workers on the other which in on 1984 Orwell turn will only happen in a world which is no longer driven primarily by competition.

I would have to be a much bigger optimist than I am to expect or even to hope that such changes will come about in my lifetime, but the human race is in desperate need of people like Black to give it a kick up the backside and point it in the right direction which happens to be just about the opposite direction to ross belfort the one in which its been going for at least the last few centuries. One final point of criticism is that, for my taste, Black has perhaps slightly too negative an attitude to education. Hes quite right when he says that schools are like factories, prisons and mental hospitals: On the other hand education is necessary, not just to teach people how to By George work (its main function at the moment), but to teach them how to enjoy life, which for me comes down to just about the purpose of ads same thing as teaching them wisdom . Just as in most fields, the Essay By George Orwell only people who can really teach well are those who enjoy teaching, and in rational my experience theyre few and By George, far between, but those are the people the human race most desperately needs, perhaps more than anything else. I suspect that Black would agree wholeheartedly with all this, but what comes across in his essays is often a simple anti-authoritarian attitude of burn down the schools and that wouldnt be such a good idea in the long term. Black is certainly an purpose of ads, idealist, but in The Libertarian as Conservative (1984, from Other Vices ), he demonstrates political incisiveness, a realistic view of life and By George, a profound understanding of how the world works.

Here he has no time for libertarians and right-wing anarchists: While I found The Abolition of Work and the directly related essays the most interesting, Blacks articles from Appeal To Treason are often well worthwhile. In Let us Prey! , for instance, we see that he has a very healthy attitude to religion, while The Political Theory of Ferlinghetti shows him to have been way ahead of his time: in 1984 he was already writing about the left, long paralyzed with perplexity by a modern world beyond its old ideologies. He has as little time for the authoritarian left, including the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, as he does for Essay on Statement of Purpose for a Degree the capitalist right. Its amazing how little has changed since the 1980s.

In Lying in Stateand Elsewhere (1982, from Appeal To Treason ), we see how the Essay By George Orwell word terrorism was misused as much then, and in exactly the same way, as it is now: It is precisely these distinctions which the politicians and their academic and journalistic camp followers use the word to obscure. To them, all political violence, vandalism or even mere tumult is terrorism unless the terrorists wear uniforms. Governments therefore cannot engage in terrorism, no matter what they do, whereas anti-state violence is Essay Degree, always terrorism even if it consists of attacks by one military force against another. [] When Shiites take American hostages they are terrorists. When Israelis take Shiite hostages it is a violation of Essay international law, perhaps, or cause for restrained criticism, but not by any means terrorism. [] The corruption of language promotes the corruption of life. It is even its prerequisite.

A first step toward peace and freedom impossible now under class society and its business end, the and the poem state is to Essay on 1984 Orwell call things by their true names. Thus the difference between the operatives of the military-industrial-political-journalistic complex and the small fry maligned by the media as terrorists is only the difference between wholesale and retail. Wise words indeed! Black is intelligent, incisive, rarely diplomatic, often sarcastic, and harder-hitting than Gian Paolo Borghetti at his best. His pen is sharp, and , I certainly wouldnt want to find myself on the wrong end of it! Particularly good (and often amusing) examples of his polemical style are to be found in:

If You Cant Stand the Heat, Stay in the Kitchen. A Study in Floccinaucinihilipilification. Technophilia, An Infantile Disorder. Withered Anarchism (which includes an Essay on 1984 By George, interesting section on positive and negative freedom; Black knows his philosophy). A few words on purpose of ads some of his other essays: The War On Drugs As The Health Of The State : An intelligent essay on war in general and The War On Drugs in particular. Essay On 1984 By George Orwell? Black has some very interesting things to say about the mechanisms involved in state institutions. War is Essay on Statement, good for the economy, i.e. for the capitalist system, but its also good for the state, making it richer and By George Orwell, more powerful.

Why Not Take a Holiday? : An interesting text on William Benbow and his Grand National Holiday of the Working Classes. FIJA: Monkeywrenching The Legal System : Some interesting comments on the jury system and how it could be improved. Black is a trained lawyer, and seems to know what hes talking about. The Realization And Suppression Of Situationism : An intelligent essay on the flesh Situationism. In Apes of Wrath he talks about animal rights, and makes the connection to anarchy. Feminism As Fascism : An intelligent and hard-hitting essay on radical feminism. Beautiful Losers: A Historiography of the Industrial Workers of the World is a long scholarly article about the IWW (aka the on 1984 By George Orwell Wobblies), and was a bit too much for me. One of the ross few essays I didnt finish. This collection of essays as a whole gives an interesting picture of the strange world of Essay on 1984 By George Orwell American anarchism.

Strange, because what might be regarded as one ideology or philosophy includes schools of thought which are diametrically opposed to one another. People who define themselves as anarchists are all vaguely opposed to the state, but in terms of black athlete politics and economics they range from the Essay on 1984 By George Orwell extreme left to professional athlete the extreme right. If theres a deep and Essay on 1984 Orwell, long-running conflict between leftist Anarcho-Syndicalists who accept work, and athlete, more individualist, anti-work anarchists who dont, then these groups at least have enough common ground to make some sort of Essay By George Orwell a dialogue possible. I dont think the same can really be said of the divide between these people on the one hand and libertarians and first black, right-wing anarchists on the other (as Black makes pretty clear in The Libertarian as Conservative and Smokestack Lightning ). The essay My Anarchism Problem offers an on 1984 By George Orwell, intelligent analysis of the purpose of ads phenomenon of anarchism and of its problems: I think these extreme differences in viewpoint within the anarchist movement, in combination with his hard-hitting, undiplomatic and often sarcastic style, go a long way to explaining the Essay By George fact that Black has got into some bitter, long-running and professional, sometimes physically violent disputes with others who define themselves as anarchists, and has made some serious enemies in Essay By George the course of jordan ross his career.

Unfortunately hes found it necessary to expound on these disputes at great length, and the essays dealing with his conflicts with the By George magazine Processed World (who seemingly accused him of arson, had him beaten up and hounded him out of town), with the Church of the SubGenius (who sent him a letter bomb) and purpose of ads, with Jim Hogshire (apparently a drug-addicted anarchist turned Islam fundamentalist who threw him out of his house at gunpoint), are among the least interesting in the collection. But even these can still be entertaining at Essay on 1984 By George times, and they occasionally contain words of professional wisdom and statements which make you stop and think, for instance this one from the otherwise not so interesting My Date With Jim Hogshire (Version 2.1) : And to finish, a few more examples of Bob Blacks words of wisdom:

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6 Terrific Pieces of Advice for Writing College Application Essays. Just recently, I sent out an email blast to the rising seniors with whom I work, urging them to begin working on college application essays NOW. If you are a rising senior (or a parent of one), I can imagine a few of you saying, What! Aren't you being a little 'anal?' It's too early to By George, do that. Au contraire, my friends. The reason to start working on first black professional athlete, essays now is that summer months are predictably less fraught with the academic, sports and other activities that fall semester usually brings.

Summer, rather than later, is a good time to start because students have the on 1984, time to: Carefully think through how to answer essay questions. And, do the all-important editing and re-editing. THE ROLE OF ESSAYS IN COLLEGE ADMISSIONS. To that point, I want to say a little bit about what role essays have in college admissions. While student grades and test scores are critical factors in admissions, application essays can be an even more important factor, especially for private, liberal arts colleges and the more selective universities. Like nothing else, essays give readers a sense for how students express themselves and especially how they are unique and different from other applicants. Essays help students stand out from the Essay on 1984 By George, crowd. And, much to By George Orwell, the surprise of many applicants and even parents, writing good application essays takes time. a lot of time, and drafts and editing.

This is because although writing can and purpose of ads often is Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, fun, it is also challenging. As someone with five published books, and ongoing involvement with a number of blogs, I admit that sometimes I love writing and at other times I hate it. Personally, I am always looking for that magic piece of advice another writer has that will get me through predictable writing blocks, and the students I work with have also repeatedly asked for advice on how to get started or continue. So, here is what different writers have shared with me about how to Essay of Purpose Degree, spend more time loving rather than hating writing. I hope you find this as useful as I have. 6 TERRIFIC PIECES OF ADVICE. 1. Write as if you are talking to the reader. I think that the best advice I have ever received about purpose of ads writing came as a result of attending a writing conference. A publishing executive said at the beginning of By George Orwell her talk, To write easily and well, simply be yourself.

Be natural; write as if you are talking to your reader on paper. As soon as I returned home from the conference, I started doing what she said and never looked back. You can do the same with your college application essays. Remember, the purpose of answering the application questions is to help the college admissions officers get to know you. What better way of doing that is there than to write as if you are talking to them? When I attend college admissions conferences, I almost always attend sessions on application essays, where college admissions officers talk about what they look for. Inevitably it is revealed that they love reading applicants' personal stories and on 1984 By George Orwell anecdotes. Frankly, the stories can be about anything ranging from a conversation with a grandparent, to Essay Orwell, the best or worst day of your life, to purpose of ads, a special talent or involvement or something that changed how you think.

Stories help illustrate points that you may be trying to Essay Orwell, make to your readers and help show more about who you are as a person. Every child in every family has stories about themselves. If you have trouble coming up with some, try having a brainstorming session with your parents at rational, dinner some time. Many writers tell me that in order to write authentically, they had to definition, unlearn a lot of what they were taught in school. Among their most important unlearnings was to limit using third person pronouns (he, she, they, it), and start using the first person, I. Because college admissions people want to hear about Essay on Statement Science Degree you, you need to write in your own, unique voice. And that means saying such things as, I have loved numbers ever since I was a little kid. My mother tells me that at Essay on 1984 Orwell, the grocery store, I would sit in the cart and add up the of Purpose for a Computer Science, item prices she placed next to on 1984 By George Orwell, me to see if I could come up with the same amount as the definition, cash register.

This is a lot more personal and interesting than saying, Some students have known that they were good with numbers since they were little kids. 4. Show, don't tell. Be specific, descriptive and offer plenty of details. Skillful writers say that the key to alive, good writing is to show, not tell. Rather than saying that you love animals, write something such as, Whether a tiny, slithery salamander or a magnificent Arabian horse, I am simply nuts about animals. Since I was very young, I have spent a lot of my time rescuing, raising, caring for jordan ross belfort and loving them. Author Natalie Goldberg says, . a writer's job is to make the ordinary come alive. 5. Avoid generalities, cliches and By George philosophical or psychological babble. It is By George Orwell, so easy to fall into on Statement for a Degree writing something that ends up saying nothing or is trite. To not do that, keep in mind the following:

Generalities: Rather than saying, I'm very hardworking, describe a situation that demonstrates how diligent you are. For example, When it comes to special academic projects, I am the kind of person who both starts way in advance and at the end sometimes stays up all night to Essay on 1984, make sure that an assignment is the jordan, best that it can be. Cliches: Rather than saying, I like working with people and want to save the world, how about saying, I joined the Diversity Club at school because I wanted to get to know students from Essay on 1984, different cultures, learn about their families, religion, traditions and even their food. I also wanted to find out rational decision definition, how we are alike and unalike. I believe that when people really get to know one another, they have a better chance of getting along. Psychobabble: Rather than saying, I get really ADD when it comes to studying, say something such as When I do homework in the evenings, I often find it difficult to concentrate, get easily distracted and don't seem to Essay the World, Yourself, be able to focus.

By the way, in case you didn't notice, the quote in the first paragraph about being anal, is another example of Psychobabble. 6. Make sure that your essay is free of spelling, grammatical mistakes and improper use of Essay the World, Educate Yourself words. There are few things that negatively stick out more on college applications than errors. I cannot stress this enough! Grammar and punctuation errors are like a huge red flag on your application. Make sure that the final person to read your essay is a great proofreader, and ask them specifically to look for on 1984 errors. Careless mistakes are one of the quickest routes to negatively impress application readers and may result in you're getting a rejection letter from a college. College essays can reveal a lot about how you think and who you are, things that college admissions officers want to know. Students who take the Essay on 1984 Orwell, time to pen original, thoughtful, well-written essays truly enhance their college admissions possibilities.

Next week I will show you how to write a captivating, one-of-a-kind application essay.

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!--BACKGROUND=/backgrounds/ltgray_aluminum.gif-- Guidelines for Writing a Political Theory Essay. Professor Anna Marie Smith. Department of Government, Cornell University. A. The purpose of political theory writing. 1. The theoretical issues, rather than empirical facts presented on their own, are most important for us. Remember that your assignment is designed as an Essay on 1984 By George Orwell exercise in interpreting political theory. Emphasize the theoretical aspects of your answer.

Empirical material such as historical details and statistical data should be used to support your answer where appropriate, but you should aim primarily to demonstrate your ability to argue coherently and effectively within well-defined theoretical frameworks. 2. Make a compelling argument. Your goal is to present an accurate treatment of the basic interpretive facts, but then to on 1984 conduct a dialogue with the decision definition, text and to Essay on 1984 Orwell give your opinion on the theoretical problem at hand. For example, political theory essays often deal with a normative issue (known colloquially as the ought question.) Martin Luther King Jr. thought that the achievement of genuine racial equality would require both the elimination of discrimination against African-Americans and the redistribution of income from the wealthy to Essay By George the poor. A good political theory treatment of this argument would not make any mistakes on the basic interpretive facts that are beyond dispute. It would, for example, trace King's influences back to the civil rights movement and Christian theological discourse.

But it would also move into the realm of the should statement as well. The political theory essay would advance a clear normative argument; the author would take a position either for or against King's claim. Now an economist might respond to King argument by seeking to Essay on Statement of Purpose find an By George Orwell absolutely precise measurement of the distribution of wealth in the United States and the developed world during the 1960s. For the political theorist, however, it is the conceptual puzzle implicit in King's statement that commands our attention. Rational. According to King, how is the on 1984 By George, distribution of income related to racial inequality? What is his understanding of key concepts such as racial integration, freedom and democracy? Why did he believe that the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s had not brought racism to Orwell an end?

In your opinion, is King's argument persuasive? Note that the reader cannot, in all fairness, expect the political theory essay to present a correct answer. The political theory essay attempts to persuade the reader by advancing a compelling argument that is well supported by detailed and insightful interpretive work. 3. Develop a thesis and sustain your thesis argument throughout the paper. Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to convince your reader that you are right, and that you have approached the question in a fair-minded and thoughtful manner. Jordan Ross Belfort. Essays that are not built on a thesis tend to summarize the text and to wander aimlessly from point to By George Orwell point. 4. First Athlete. Engage with the themes of the Essay on 1984, course and the texts that we are studying. A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the student author had attended the decision definition, course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the assigned reading.

Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the questions raised in Essay Orwell, class and in your texts. You are welcome to take any reasonable position in your essay, but engagement with the assigned texts is mandatory. Think of it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the position from which you will speak in your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading. 5. Define your terms. Political theorists should aim to define terms with great precision. For A Degree. Political theorists contribute to the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of key political problems. As soon as you introduce a term into Essay By George Orwell your essay, you should define it very clearly. As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims. Where your argument does depend upon factual claims, you must state them clearly in a precise manner, and Essay on Statement of Purpose Science, you must footnote your source. 7. Essay On 1984 By George. Leave yourself enough time to black write a full outline and multiple drafts.

I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and cramming for exams, but I encourage you to avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of reflection and Educate Yourself, critical revision. Aim to finish the next-to-final draft several days before the due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of days. Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at Essay Orwell, the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to detect weak passages and problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and hand it in. B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the essay . Purpose Of Ads. Emphasize your informed argument. The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of quotations and strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the appropriate reading and that you are thinking independently and jordan ross belfort, creatively about the text. 2. Always remember that the essay is an academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and sloppy argumentation in their essays.

Do not use the kind of words, phrases and arguments that you would use in other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an Essay on 1984 By George address to a political rally. In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and scholarly tone, the more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the the World,, text. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in which the text advances an argument that is central to your paper. But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary. Do not fill out Essay By George your answers with long direct quotations from the text. The World, Yourself. In short papers up to 15 pages in Essay Orwell, length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to 50 words in length. Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for this type of paper.

4. For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the art of the concise paraphrase . You should choose appropriate passages from the text and put them in your own words, taking care throughout the paper to capture the Essay Orwell, nuances of the text, and to Essay on Statement Computer footnote the original source. (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the reader as a simple set of textual summaries. Make the texts work for Essay on 1984 By George Orwell you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of their arguments. Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and even contradictory dimensions as well. Spirit. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the text of a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the argument in your own words, with full notation as required. Your goal should be to make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and from his/her point of view. By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of its argument. 6. You should explore the Essay on 1984 By George, meaning of each text very carefully . Athlete. If you are opposed to an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the same token, you must indicate the weaknesses and contradictions in Essay Orwell, the texts that you happen to favor. Any essay that fails to do this will miss the on Feed, opportunity to engage in advanced forms of interpretive work.

The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and Essay on 1984 Orwell, closing arguments in a trial. If you agree with the text without carefully reconstructing its position, then your agreement will come too easily and you will fail to note the text's own contradictions and weaknesses. On Statement Computer Science Degree. If, by contrast, you criticize the text without considering its strengths, you will be reducing the text to a straw man and engaging in a dismissive reading where subtle, detailed and sensitive commentary is required. 7. Use the non-expert scholar figure as your target audience. Write your paper as if you will be submitting it to a professor who studies politics, but who is Essay on 1984, not an expert on the material you are dealing with. This will remind you to use any complicated terminology sparingly, to define all key terms thoroughly, and to the flesh spirit poem avoid taking for granted the meaning of complicated debates and issues. Take care to lead the non-expert scholar through the twists and turns of your argument, and make sure that your imaginary reader will regard your work as an accessible and the World, Educate, persuasive paper. On 1984 By George. Perhaps something that seems obvious to you actually needs more explanation and detailed interrogation.

By teaching the non-expert scholar figure about political theory, you will become a better political theorist yourself. . As Wittgenstein says, the on 1984 By George, best way to find out if someone really understands the meaning of a word is to ask her or him to teach someone else about the word and its usage. 8. Anticipate any reasonable objections that your reader might raise, lay them out in the strongest and most empathetic manner possible, and then give your rebuttal. You may find that this process will actually lead you to reconsider your own position and spur you to write a richer and more penetrating paper. 1. Present the different parts of your argument in a logical order. Explain to rational decision definition the reader in explicit terms why you are proceeding from one idea to the next. In a longer piece (i.e. over 10 pages) use subtitles to Essay help the reader to follow the progression of your argument. Your reader should never have to wonder why a specific sentence was included, or why a certain paragraph came before another one. 2. Personal reflections and autobiographical information are acceptable; in fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and critical race theory writing. Essay Educate. (See, for example, the work of Patricia J. Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. You should keep in mind that personal material is never an Essay adequate substitute for theoretical analysis. 3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.

4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into your answer and Essay Educate, these references should be noted clearly throughout. All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to 10 notes per page. 5. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in your footnotes to By George Orwell every source that you consulted while conducting your research and writing the paper. I reserve the right to Essay on Feed the World, Educate conduct an internet search relating to any part of your assignment to check for plagiarism. 6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to provide a footnote to them. By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on your own reading. 7. We expect you to abide by the plagiarism code of the university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade. Essay Orwell. Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. The Flesh. Double submission is also forbidden.

This rule often raises a lot of questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of work that you have done/are doing for Essay By George another course, please make an appointment with me to discuss the overlap situation. 8. Essay On Statement Of Purpose For A Degree. Deadlines are meant to ensure that each individual student receives fair and By George, equal treatment. I only give extensions to students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. Rational Decision Definition. Please deliver your paper, in Essay Orwell, hard copy format, to my mailbox on the second floor of White Hall, by 4:30 on the due date. I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the work that I am placing on reserve for this course.)

A. Question: Analyze the media coverage of the LAPD trials related to the beating of Rodney King. The meaning of the videotape was shaped by the defence lawyers in the courtroom. According to first athlete Crenshaw and Peller, What many people did not comprehend was that police brutality, just like discrimination, does not speak for itself. This very struggle over meaning is precisely what the intense contestations about race in the law are really about. Rather than providing some kind of firm ground to challenge racist institutional practices, notions of formal equality, objectivity, neutrality, and the like tend to obscure the way that race is experienced by Essay on 1984 Orwell the vast majority of African Americans in this society. First Black Professional. (Crenshaw and on 1984 Orwell, Peller 1993: 64) So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in which the decision definition, law is used against them. The student has clearly read the purpose of ads, assigned text by Crenshaw and Orwell, Peller, but he or she is relying on the quotation too much. The student should put the the flesh, quotation into his or her own words and then give his or her commentary.

The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. The student has merely gone into Essay on 1984 Orwell the text, found some key passages, and then pasted them together. Although the purpose of ads, student has grasped the basic meaning of the text, the more complex aspects of Crenshaw and Peller's argument seem to be eluding him or her. This writing is at a C to B- level. Having examined the general political context for the LAPD trials in and the, Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media. At this point, we must insist on the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in Essay on 1984 Orwell, American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of intensive contestation.

The videotape of King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on face value as objective evidence of the the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out that the rational decision definition, legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about on 1984, meaning. They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in court: they attempted to restrict the category of legitimate evidence and to Essay on Feed the World, re-define unfavourable evidence by placing it in the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of racial imagery plays an integral role in the entire system of institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into the normal way of doing things. That discrediting process depends in part upon the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of oppression. By George. Re-contextualize the video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the under-representation of blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is only when we take Crenshaw and and the spirit poem, Peller's warning about the constructed nature of every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the media coverage of the trials.

The student's own argument is Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, driving the essay: she is taking a position and defending it; the reference to the article is paraphrased accurately and properly noted; the student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the Essay on Statement Degree, different parts of the argument in a logical order, and telling the reader very clearly why she is moving from one idea to Essay Orwell the next. There is a slight risk that the student is moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by all the quick transitions. Hopefully, the student will return to the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of his or her argument. This section of the decision, paper would merit a grade of A- or better. B. Question: Can a society marked by a substantial inequality in wealth maintain and deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the system is run by rich white men.

We will never get campaign finance reform because the lobbyists for rich white men are incredibly powerful. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the student is writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of a political theory course. The passage reads like something the student could have written without taking the course at all. First. What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is taking for granted that we only need to discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and actually exercise that right.

The conceptual debates on the meaning of democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. Its ought to be spelled it's. Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the long form (do not) instead. The term, the system, is a popular clich that is far too vague. Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the bureaucracy, the private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is not defined. Essay Orwell. Rich white men is , not an Essay on 1984 Orwell academic phrase.

The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the belfort, bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about Essay, wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites? It is and the spirit poem, plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the writer exactly mean by powerful? If she or he is referring to the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in an explicit manner. The cited source, the Orwell, web page, is not an the flesh acceptable academic text. Web page sources must be used very carefully.

Data should be drawn primarily from articles and on 1984, texts that have been published by academic publishers. Essay Of Purpose. Data from the Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, publications of (non-partisan) governmental agencies is also acceptable. The latter are often available on the web through the By George Orwell, Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. The only type of journalistic source that is acceptable is what is called the newspaper of record: in the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and Essay, so on are not legitimate. Finally, the essay is rational decision, skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly. Again, it is entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Democrats are in fact influenced by wealthy interest groups first and foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. Black Professional. Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from Essay on 1984 By George Orwell politics, and those feelings of alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether. Essay On 1984 Orwell. However, a critic might say that the presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates.

The essay needs to engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at Orwell, a time, give full and careful treatment to each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the objections of a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the next point. This passage is an example of writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse. The tension between the type of inequality that is present in any capitalist social structure on the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is explored in a perceptive manner by the flesh and the Marx in his article, On the By George, Jewish Question. (footnote) Marx was addressing the fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in first black professional, Europe; they had been barred from holding office and from practicing most professions and Orwell, crafts. In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules.

Marx used the Essay the World, Educate Yourself, unique position of the Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and equality as long as the capitalist system remained intact. As we have seen in our discussion of Locke, individual freedom and equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to By George serve in a public office, and -- where the purpose of ads, franchise existed -- to vote. But Marx points out that the liberated Jew has only been granted the sort of freedom and equality that are possible in market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the on Statement of Purpose for a Degree, same status as every other individual in a capitalist world.

That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. There is the citizen half; in this mode, the individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the competitor half. In this second mode, the individual puts aside the generosity of spirit and fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in the citizen mode and struggles against every other individual to gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into a class group, based on whether or not he or she owns the means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is abolished and the capitalist system is rational, overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in his Essay on the Origin of Inequality.

Once again we have the opposition between the on 1984 By George Orwell, two modes within the individual: the the flesh spirit poem, unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to the key conceptual argument. For A Computer Science. The sign-posting to other passages in the essay (as we have seen . ) is Essay By George Orwell, helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of each paragraph is clearly introduced in ross belfort, the first sentence. The author is building the on 1984 By George Orwell, argument in a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text. Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Locke, Marx and Rousseau and on Feed, giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the Essay By George, author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper.

Provided that he or she does so, the paper would probably receive a grade of A. These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes. Other professors may be looking for different elements in Essay the World,, the assignments for their courses.

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college essay model Winning Essay Examples - College Scolarship Essays. Winning Essays for Scholarships. (Crabial, National Merit Scholar and Fulbright) Content provided by on 1984 By George Orwell, EssayEdge's Harvard-Educated Editors. This section contains three scholarship essays: Scholarship Essay One - Crabiel Scholarship Essay Two - National Merit Scholar Scholarship Essay Three - Fulbright. Scholarship Essay One. CRABIEL SCHOLARSHIP WINNER - won $3,000 scholarship. Like Mr. Crabiel, I literally work tirelessly in many academic and leadership roles.

I sleep no more than six hours a night because of my desire to expertly meet my many commitments. Throughout my life, I have worked as long and on Feed Yourself, as hard as I possibly can to effect beneficial changes in both school and Essay Orwell, society. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. Similarly, during the summer following eleventh grade, I was one of professional ninety students from New Jersey selected to attend the Governor's School in the Sciences at Drew University. At Drew, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to professional, find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of the cosmological constant, which describes the By George Orwell, curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion.

In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on Essay of Purpose Science, special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on both general and special relativity to read during his study hall. Inspiring other students to search for Essay By George Orwell knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and the people around me. As president of the National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. In addition, I am ranked number one in my class with an SAT score of 1580 and SATII scores of 750 in math, 760 in , writing, and 800 in physics. In school, I take the Essay on 1984, hardest possible courses including every AP course offered at the high school. I am the leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. In the area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from purpose of ads, a local rotary club, have been asked to attend the National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C., and wrote the winning essay on patriotism for South Plainfield's VFW chapter. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, the Spanish Honor Society. In addition, I recently was named a National Merit Scholar. Besides involvementin academic and leadership positions, I am active in athletics.

For instance, I lift weights regularly. In addition, I am the captain of my school's varsity tennis team. So far this year, my individual record on the team is 3-0. Working vigorously upon being elected Student Council President, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and rational decision definition, opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the school store for the first time in Essay By George Orwell, nearly a decade. With paint and wood, we turned a janitor's closet into a fantastic store.

I also direct many fund raisers and charity drives. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for decision the family of Alicia Lehman, a local girl who received a heart transplant. As Student Liaison to the South Plainfield Board of Education, I am working to introduce more advanced-placement courses, more reading of philosophy, and more math and science electives into the curriculum. At curriculum committee meetings, I have been effective in making Board members aware of the need for these courses. In addition, my speeches at public Board meetings often draw widespread support, which further helps to advance my plans for enhancing the curriculum.

I have also been effective as a Sunday school teacher. By helping elementary school students formulate principles and morals, I make a difference in their lives every week. The value system that I hope to Orwell, instill in them will last them their entire lives. I find teaching first-graders about Christ extremely rewarding. Clearly, I have devoted my life both to working to better myself and to the flesh and the spirit, improving civilization as a whole. Throughout the rest of Essay on 1984 By George my life, I hope to continue in the flesh and the poem, this same manner of unselfish work. Just as freeholder Crabiel dedicates his life to public service, I commit my life to helping others and to advancing society's level of understanding. Scholarship Essay Two. WINNING NATIONAL MERIT SCHOLAR ESSAY. Nothing in all the world is comparable to By George Orwell, reading Ayn Rand beneath New York's skyline or to studying Nietzsche atop a mountain summit. Since childhood, the purpose of ads, studies of philosophy and By George Orwell, science have interested me profoundly.

Having read many books on relativity, quantum mechanics, existentialism, religion, capitalism, democracy and post-Aristotelian philosophy, my quest for knowledge has only intensified. Certainly, the purpose of my life is to discover a greater understanding of the universe and its people. Specifically, I plan to better grasp the interrelationship among forces, matter, space, and time. In addition, I hope to find a unified field theory and Essay the World,, a convincing explanation for the birth of the universe. During the summer of tenth grade, I took a number theory course at Johns Hopkins University with students from Alaska, California, and Bogota, Colombia. My attendance of the New Jersey Governor's School in the Sciences is another accomplishment that exemplifies my dedication to knowledge. During the Orwell, summer following eleventh grade, I took courses in molecular orbital theory, special relativity, cognitive psychology, and I participated in an astrophysics research project. For my independent research project, I used a telescope to find the angular velocity of Pluto. With the angular velocity determined, I used Einstein's field equations and Kepler's laws to place an upper bound on the magnitude of thecosmological constant, which describes the curvature of space and the rate of the universe's expansion. In addition to learning science, I recently lectured physics classes on special relativity at the request of my physics teacher. After lecturing one class for 45 minutes, one student bought many books on Science Degree, both general and special relativity to Essay on 1984 By George, read during his study hall.

Inspiring other students to Essay on Statement for a Degree, search for on 1984 By George Orwell knowledge kindles my own quest to understand the world and Essay for a Science Degree, the people around me. Also, as president of the Essay on 1984 By George Orwell, National Honor Society, I tutor students with difficulties in various subject areas. Moreover, I am ranked number one in my class, and I am the leading member of the Math Team, the Academic Team, and the Model Congress Team. In the By George, area of leadership, I have recently received the Rotary Youth Leadership Award from , a local rotary club and By George, have been asked to and the spirit poem, attend the Essay By George, National Youth Leadership Forum on Law and the Constitution in Washington D.C. Currently enrolled in Spanish 6,I am a member of both the Spanish Club and the Spanish Honor Society. As student council president, I have begun a biweekly publication of student council activities and opinions. Also, the executive board under my direction has opened the black professional athlete, school store for the first time in nearly a decade and is finding speakers to speak at a series of Essay colloquia on topics ranging from physics to , politics. Directing fund raisers and Essay on 1984 By George, charity drives also consumes much of Essay Educate my time. For instance, I recently organized a charity drive that netted about $1,500 for the family of Essay on 1984 By George Orwell a local girl in need of a heart transplant. Consistent with my love of freedom and my belief in democracy, which is best summarized by Hayek's Road to Serfdom, I have recently initiated an application to become the liaison to the local board of education. Also, in Essay By George Orwell, keeping with my belief that individuals develop strong principles and ideology, I teach Sunday school three months a year and have chaperoned for a local Christian school.

Outside pure academics and leadership roles, I lift weights five times a week for an hour each day. In addition, I play singles for my school's varsity tennis team. Because I find extraordinary satisfaction in nature and have dedicated my life to its understanding, I enjoy mountain climbing. Among the notable peaks I have reached are Mt. Washington, Mt Jefferson, Mt. Madison, Mt. Marcy and Mt.

Katahdin. Unquestionably, my life's aim is to dramatically raise the height of the purpose of ads, mountain of knowledge so that my successors may have a more accurate view of the universe around them. Scholarship Essay Three. Fulbright Application Essay. On one hot late-summer day when I was in high school, my parents came back from a shopping trip with a surprise present for me: the legendary board game, Diplomacy. At first I scoffed at such an old-fashioned game. Who would want to Essay By George, waste glorious sunny days moving armies around a map of first black athlete pre-World War I Europe, pretending to be Bismarck or Disraeli? But after playing the game once, I became absolutely riveted by the nuances of statecraft, and soon began losing sleep as I tried to craft clever diplomatic gambits, hatch devious schemes, and better understand the game's ever-changing dynamics. As my friends and I spent the second half of the summer absorbed by the game, my parents grinned knowingly.

How could I resist being fascinated with Diplomacy, they asked me, when I incessantly read about international affairs, and liked nothing more than debating politics over dinner? How could I resist being fascinated, when I had spent most of my summers in Greece (and, much more briefly, France and Essay on 1984, England), witnessing first-hand the ways in which countries differ socially, culturally, and politically? Though my passion for Essay on Statement of Purpose foreign policy and international affairs undoubtedly dates back to high school, I never had the chance to fully develop this interest before college. Once I arrived at Harvard, however, I discovered that I could learn about international relations through both my academics and my extracurricular activities. Academically, I decided to concentrate in Government, and, within Government, to take classes that elucidated the forces underlying the relations of By George Orwell states on on Statement of Purpose Computer, the world stage. Some of the most memorable of Essay on 1984 Orwell these classes included Human Rights, in on Statement of Purpose Computer Degree, which we discussed what role humanitarian concerns ought to play in international relations; Politics of on 1984 By George Orwell Western Europe, in which I learned about the social, economic, and and the poem, political development of five major European countries; and Causes and Prevention of War, which focused on unearthing the roots of conflict and finding out how bloodshed could have been avoided. Currently, for my senior thesis, I am investigating the strange pattern of American human rights-based intervention in Essay Orwell, the post-Cold War era, and trying to determine which explanatory variables are best able to account for it. Interestingly, I think that I have learned at least as much about international relations through my extracurriculars in college as I have through my classes. For the past three years, for instance, I have helped run Harvard s three Model United Nations conferences. As a committee director at these conferences, I researched topics of global importance (e.g. the on 1984, violent disintegration of states, weapons of Essay on Feed the World, Educate mass destruction in the Middle East), wrote detailed study guides discussing these subjects, and then moderated hundreds of on 1984 students as they debated the topics and strove to on Statement Computer Science Degree, resolve them.

Even more enriching for me than directing these committees was taking part in them myself. As a delegate at other schools conferences, I would be assigned to represent a particular country on Essay on 1984 Orwell, a particular UN committee (e.g. France on the Security Council). I would then need to research my country s position on the topics to be discussed, articulate my view in front of purpose of ads others in my committee, and convince my fellow delegates to support my position. Trying to peg down a country s elusive national interest, clashing over thorny practical and philosophical issues, making and Essay By George Orwell, breaking alliances - Model UN was basically a simulation of how diplomacy really works. Thankfully, I have also found time over poem the past few years to cultivate interests and on 1984 By George, skills unrelated to Model UN and foreign policy. One of the most important of these has been community service. As a volunteer for purpose of ads Evening With Champions, an annual ice-skating exhibition held to raise money for children with cancer, and as a teacher of a weekly high school class on current events and international affairs, I have, whenever possible, used my time and By George Orwell, talents to benefit my community.

Another more recent interest of mine is the first black athlete, fascinating realm of business. Two years ago, my father s Christmas present to Essay, me was a challenge rather than a gift: he gave me $500,but told me that I could keep it only if I invested it in Essay for a Computer, the stock market - and earned a higher rate of return than he did with another $500. Since then, I have avidly followed the stock market, and become very interested in how businesses interact and respond to Essay on 1984 Orwell, strategic threats (perhaps because of the similarities between business competition and the equally cutthroat world of diplomatic realpolitik). A final passion of mine is writing. As the writer of Orwell a biweekly column in the Independent, one of Harvard s student newspapers, I find very little as satisfying as filling a blank page with words - creating from nothing an the flesh poem, elegant opinion piece that illuminates some quirk of college life, or induces my readers to on 1984 By George Orwell, consider an issue or position that they had ignored until then. Because of and the my wide range of interests, I have not yet decided what career path to follow into Essay on 1984 Orwell the future. In the short run, I hope to study abroad for a year, in the process immersing myself in another culture, and deepening my personal and academic understanding of international affairs. After studying abroad, my options would include working for a nonprofit organization, entering the corporate world, and attending law school. In the long run, I envision for myself a career straddling the first professional athlete, highest levels of Essay international relations, politics, and business.

I could achieve this admittedly ambitious goal by advancing within a nonprofit group, think tank, or major international company. Perhaps most appealingly, I could also achieve this goal by of Purpose Degree, entering public service and Essay By George Orwell, obtaining some degree of influence over actual foreign policy decisions - that is, becoming a player myself in belfort, the real-life game of Diplomacy. Click here for the free EssayEdge admissions essay help course. Use coupon code 10010101 for 10% off EssayEdge editing.