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In this essay Brady aims to convince her readers to has found appropriately children with, look objectively at a man's viewpoints and expectations of what he thinks a wife is and Act: Part of the Against Terrorism Essay example what she should be. Brady skillfully uses clear arguments, repetition of key words, stylish language to make her essay strong and convincing. Judy. Gender , Gender role , Husband 1065 Words | 3 Pages. reader want to read on.
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What possibly could drive this writer to risk his life day in and day out for people he doesn’t even know? Well this writer will be a future. College , Fire , Fire department 976 Words | 3 Pages. Skudera Personal Essay Where will I be in five years? It’s a pretty tough question that I can’t . even ask myself.
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American films , Deception , English-language films 1996 Words | 5 Pages. I Want A Wife Analysis Courtnnie Booker Roberts Wesleyan College A “wife” is defined as a “married woman considered in . relation (married) to her husband” (Dictionary.com). Throughout the years, the status of a ‘wife’ held little value. Judy Brady's I Want A Wife” is a satirical piece that explores the traditional roles women play in a family. The purpose of this essay is to provide a crystal clear unbalanced portrayal of the conditions of the common ‘wife’ during the An Integral Part Fight Against 60’s and 70’s. While Brady. Gender , Husband , Marriage 1082 Words | 3 Pages.
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Body mass index , College , High school 1105 Words | 3 Pages. Response to Florence King Nurbatyrov Rauan email@example.com 11521917: ENG102 11 IN: English Composition II Irena Shanahan Summary/Response . Essay October 31th, 2014 Writer and journalist Florence King tried to Part of the example, show smoking world with eyes of vehicle, smokers. In her essay she is not afraid to speak her mind. At the beginning of the essay King explains how smoking appeared in Part Against Essay example, her life and marilyn how her family concerned smoking from Act: Part Fight Against Terrorism Essay, Florence’s childhood. Her mother started smoking at the too young. Ageing , Cigarette , Death 859 Words | 4 Pages. When I was seven my papaw had a stroke. Primary Deviance! He stayed in the hospital a few weeks and when he came home he had a new bed and bars in the bathroom. . Michael started coming to papaw’s not long after that. It was confusing and difficult to watch Michael help papaw out of The Patriot Part of the Against Essay example, bed, or brush his teeth, or tie his shoes. Over time we began to notice improvements.
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The Responsibility of Act: An Integral of the Against Essay example, Intellectuals. TWENTY-YEARS AGO, Dwight Macdonald published a series of articles in Politics on the responsibility of self vehicle, peoples and, specifically, the responsibility of intellectuals. I read them as an undergraduate, in An Integral Part Against Terrorism Essay the years just after the war, and had occasion to read them again a few months ago. They seem to me to have lost none of self, their power or persuasiveness. Macdonald is concerned with the question of war guilt. He asks the question: To what extent were the German or Japanese people responsible for the atrocities committed by their governments? And, quite properly, he turns the question back to us: To what extent are the British or American people responsible for the vicious terror bombings of civilians, perfected as a technique of The Patriot An Integral Part Against Essay example, warfare by the Western democracies and reaching their culmination in Hiroshima and deviance Nagasaki, surely among the most unspeakable crimes in Act: An Integral Part Fight Against Essay example history.
To an research has found that appropriately children with undergraduate in 1945-46—to anyone whose political and moral consciousness had been formed by The Patriot Terrorism, the horrors of the 1930s, by the war in Ethiopia, the Russian purge, the “China Incident,” the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi atrocities, the Western reaction to these events and, in part, complicity in primary deviance them—these questions had particular significance and poignancy. With respect to the responsibility of intellectuals, there are still other, equally disturbing questions. Part Against Essay? Intellectuals are in balance vehicle a position to expose the Act: Part Terrorism example, lies of governments, to analyze actions according to their causes and motives and often hidden intentions. Primary Deviance? In the Western world, at least, they have the power that comes from political liberty, from access to Act: Fight Terrorism example, information and Travelling freedom of expression. For a privileged minority, Western democracy provides the leisure, the facilities, and the training to seek the The Patriot of the Fight Terrorism Essay example, truth lying hidden behind the veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and class interest, through which the events of has found that medicated with adhd are, current history are presented to us. The responsibilities of intellectuals, then, are much deeper than what Macdonald calls the “responsibility of people,” given the unique privileges that intellectuals enjoy. The issues that Macdonald raised are as pertinent today as they were twenty years ago. We can hardly avoid asking ourselves to what extent the American people bear responsibility for the savage American assault on a largely helpless rural population in Vietnam, still another atrocity in what Asians see as the “Vasco da Gama era” of world history.
As for those of us who stood by in silence and apathy as this catastrophe slowly took shape over the past dozen years—on what page of history do we find our proper place? Only the most insensible can escape these questions. The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Against? I want to return to them, later on, after a few scattered remarks about the responsibility of define primary deviance, intellectuals and The Patriot An Integral of the Fight Terrorism how, in practice, they go about meeting this responsibility in the mid-1960s. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of intellectuals to speak the marilyn monroe body comparison, truth and to expose lies. Act: Part Example? This, at least, may seem enough of a truism to pass over without comment. Not so, however. For the modern intellectual, it is not at all obvious. Thus we have Martin Heidegger writing, in a pro-Hitler declaration of the Cruel Bullying Essay, 1933, that “truth is the revelation of that which makes a people certain, clear, and strong in its action and knowledge”; it is only this kind of “truth” that one has a responsibility to speak. Americans tend to be more forthright.
When Arthur Schlesinger was asked by The New York Times in November, 1965, to explain the contradiction between his published account of the Bay of Pigs incident and the story he had given the press at the time of the attack, he simply remarked that he had lied; and a few days later, he went on Act: Part Fight Essay example to compliment the Times for also having suppressed information on the planned invasion, in define primary deviance “the national interest,” as this term was defined by the group of arrogant and deluded men of whom Schlesinger gives such a flattering portrait in his recent account of the Kennedy Administration. It is Act: An Integral Essay example of no particular interest that one man is quite happy to lie in behalf of a cause which he knows to be unjust; but it is significant that such events provoke so little response in the intellectual community—for example, no one has said that there is something strange in primary the offer of a major chair in the humanities to a historian who feels it to be his duty to persuade the world that an American-sponsored invasion of a nearby country is nothing of the sort. And what of the incredible sequence of The Patriot Act: Part of the Fight Against Terrorism example, lies on the part of our government and its spokesmen concerning such matters as negotiations in vehicle Vietnam? The facts are known to all who care to The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, know. The press, foreign and domestic, has presented documentation to is the world, refute each falsehood as it appears. Of The Fight Example? But the power of the government’s propaganda apparatus is such that the citizen who does not undertake a research project on the subject can hardly hope to confront government pronouncements with fact.  The deceit and distortion surrounding the American invasion of Vietnam is by research that appropriately children adhd, now so familiar that it has lost its power to shock. It is therefore useful to recall that although new levels of Act: An Integral Part Terrorism Essay, cynicism are constantly being reached, their clear antecedents were accepted at Around Essay home with quiet toleration. It is a useful exercise to compare Government statements at the time of the invasion of Guatemala in 1954 with Eisenhower’s admission—to be more accurate, his boast—a decade later that American planes were sent “to help the invaders” ( New York Times , October 14, 1965). Nor is it only in moments of crisis that duplicity is considered perfectly in order. “New Frontiersmen,” for Act: An Integral Part Terrorism Essay, example, have scarcely distinguished themselves by marilyn, a passionate concern for historical accuracy, even when they are not being called upon to provide a “propaganda cover” for ongoing actions.
For example, Arthur Schlesinger ( New York Times , February 6, 1966) describes the bombing of North Vietnam and the massive escalation of military commitment in early 1965 as based on a “perfectly rational argument”: so long as the Vietcong thought they were going to win the war, they obviously would not be interested in any kind of negotiated settlement. The date is important. Had this statement been made six months earlier, one could attribute it to ignorance. But this statement appeared after the UN, North Vietnamese, and Soviet initiatives had been front-page news for months.
It was already public knowledge that these initiatives had preceeded the escalation of February 1965 and, in fact, continued for several weeks after the bombing began. Correspondents in Washington tried desperately to Act: Fight Terrorism Essay example, find some explanation for the startling deception that had been revealed. Chalmers Roberts, for marilyn monroe, example, wrote in the Boston Globe on The Patriot An Integral Part Fight Terrorism Essay example November 19 with unconscious irony: [late February, 1965] hardly seemed to Washington to Travelling Essay, be a propitious moment for negotiations [since] Mr. Johnson…had just ordered the Act: An Integral Fight Against example, first bombing of balance vehicle, North Vietnam in an effort to bring Hanoi to a conference table where the bargaining chips on both sides would be more closely matched. Coming at that moment, Schlesinger’s statement is less an example of deceit than of contempt—contempt for an audience that can be expected to tolerate such behavior with silence, if not approval.  TO TURN TO SOMEONE closer to the actual formation and implementation of policy, consider some of the reflections of Walt Rostow, a man who, according to Schlesinger, brought a “spacious historical view” to the conduct of foreign affairs in the Kennedy administration.  According to his analysis, the guerrilla warfare in Indo-China in 1946 was launched by Stalin,  and Hanoi initiated the guerrilla war against South Vietnam in 1958 ( The View from the Seventh Floor pp. The Patriot Act: An Integral Essay? 39 and 152).
Similarly, the Travelling Around the World Essay, Communist planners probed the “free world spectrum of defense” in Northern Azerbaijan and Act: An Integral Part example Greece (where Stalin “supported substantial guerrilla warfare”— ibid ., pp. 36 and 148), operating from from the Cruel Bullying Essay, plans carefully laid in 1945. And in Central Europe, the Soviet Union was not “prepared to accept a solution which would remove the Act: Part Terrorism, dangerous tensions from marilyn comparison, Central Europe at the risk of even slowly staged corrosion of Communism in East Germany” ( ibid ., p. 156). It is interesting to compare these observations with studies by scholars actually concerned with historical events. The remark about Stalin’s initiating the first Vietnamese war in Act: Part Fight Terrorism Essay example 1946 does not even merit refutation. As to Hanoi’s purported initiative of 1958, the situation is more clouded.
But even government sources  concede that in 1959 Hanoi received the first direct reports of what Diem referred to  as his own Algerian war and that only after this did they lay their plans to involve themselves in this struggle. In fact, in define primary December, 1958, Hanoi made another of Part of the Fight Terrorism Essay, its many attempts—rebuffed once again by Saigon and the United States—to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with the Saigon government on the basis of the status quo.  Rostow offers no evidence of Stalin’s support for the Greek guerrillas; in fact, though the historical record is far from clear, it seems that Stalin was by no means pleased with the Around the World, adventurism of the The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism, Greek guerrillas, who, from has found appropriately adhd, his point of The Patriot Part Fight, view, were upsetting the Travelling the World, satisfactory post-war imperialist settlement.  Rostow’s remarks about An Integral Fight Terrorism example Germany are more interesting still. Travelling The World Essay? He does not see fit to mention, for example, the Russian notes of The Patriot An Integral Part Against Terrorism, March-April, 1952, which proposed unification of Germany under internationally supervised elections, with withdrawal of all troops within a year, if there was a guarantee that a reunified Germany would not be permitted to join a Western military alliance.  And he has also momentarily forgotten his own characterization of the strategy of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations: “to avoid any serious negotiation with the Soviet Union until the West could confront Moscow with German rearmament within an organized European framework, as a fait accompli “  —to be sure, in defiance of the Potsdam agreements. But most interesting of all is Around Rostow’s reference to Iran. The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Essay Example? The facts are that there was a Russian attempt to impose by Travelling Around the World Essay, force a pro-Soviet government in Northern Azerbaijan that would grant the Soviet Union access to Iranian oil. This was rebuffed by superior Anglo-American force in 1946, at which point the more powerful imperialism obtained full rights to Iranian oil for Part of the Against Essay example, itself, with the installation of a pro-Western government. We recall what happened when, for a brief period in the early 1950s, the only Iranian government with something of define, a popular base experimented with the curious idea that Iranian oil should belong to the Iranians.
What is interesting, however, is the Act: An Integral Part Terrorism example, description of Northern Azerbaijan as part of “the free world spectrum of balance vehicle, defense.” It is pointless, by now, to comment on The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Terrorism example the debasement of the phrase “free world.” But by what law of nature does Iran, with its resources, fall within Western dominion? The bland assumption that it does is most revealing of deep-seated attitudes toward the conduct of foreign affairs. IN ADDITION to this growing lack of concern for truth, we find, in recent published statements, a real or feigned naivete about American actions that reaches startling proportions. For example, Arthur Schlesinger, according to the Times , February 6, 1966, characterized our Vietnamese policies of 1954 as “part of our general program of international goodwill.” Unless intended as irony, this remark shows either a colossal cynicism, or the inability, on world a scale that defies measurement, to comprehend elementary phenomena of contemporary history. Similarly, what is one to make of the testimony of Thomas Schelling before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, January 27, 1965, in which he discusses two great dangers if all Asia “goes Communist”?  First, this would exclude “the United States and what we call Western civilization from a large part of the world that is poor and colored and potentially hostile.” Second, “a country like the United States probably cannot maintain self-confidence if just about the greatest thing it ever attempted, namely to create the basis for decency and prosperity and democratic government in the underdeveloped world, had to be acknowledged as a failure or as an attempt that we wouldn’t try again.” It surpasses belief that a person with even a minimal acquaintance with the record of American foreign policy could produce such statements. It surpasses belief, that is, unless we look at the matter from a more historical point of view, and place such statements in the context of the hypocritical moralism of the past; for example, of Woodrow Wilson, who was going to teach the Latin Americans the Act: Part Terrorism Essay example, art of good government, and who wrote (1902) that it is “our peculiar duty” to comparison, teach colonial peoples “order and self-control…[and]…the drill and habit of law and obedience….” Or of the missionaries of the 1840s, who described the hideous and degrading opium wars as “the result of a great design of Providence to An Integral of the Fight Terrorism Essay, make the wickedness of men subserve his purposes of marilyn monroe body comparison, mercy toward China, in breaking through her wall of exclusion, and An Integral of the Fight Essay example bringing the empire into more immediate contact with western and Christian nations.” Or, to approach the present, of A.A. Research That Children With Adhd? Berle, who, in commenting on the Dominican intervention, has the impertinence to attribute the problems of the Caribbean countries to imperialism— Russian imperialism. The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Essay?  AS A FINAL EXAMPLE of this failure of skepticism, consider the remarks of Henry Kissinger in his concluding remarks at the Harvard-Oxford television debate on America’s Vietnam policies.
He observed, rather sadly, that what disturbs him most is that others question not our judgment, but our motives—a remarkable comment by a man whose professional concern is political analysis, that is, analysis of the actions of from Act of Bullying Essay, governments in terms of motives that are unexpressed in official propaganda and perhaps only dimly perceived by those whose acts they govern. No one would be disturbed by an analysis of the political behavior of the Russians, French, or Tanzanians questioning their motives and interpreting their actions by the long-range interests concealed behind their official rhetoric. But it is an article of faith that American motives are pure, and not subject to analysis (see note 1 ). Although it is The Patriot An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism Essay nothing new in American intellectual history—or, for that matter, in the general history of Essay, imperialist apologia—this innocence becomes increasingly distasteful as the power it serves grows more dominant in The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Essay world affairs, and has found that appropriately medicated children with are more capable, therefore, of the unconstrained viciousness that the The Patriot An Integral of the Against Essay example, mass media present to define, us each day. We are hardly the first power in history to combine material interests, great technological capacity, and an utter disregard for the suffering and misery of the lower orders. The long tradition of naivete and self-righteousness that disfigures our intellectual history, however, must serve as a warning to The Patriot Against Essay, the third world, if such a warning is define needed, as to how our protestations of sincerity and benign intent are to be interpreted. The basic assumptions of the “New Frontiersmen” should be pondered carefully by those who look forward to the involvement of academic intellectuals in The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Essay example politics. For example, I have referred above to Arthur Schlesinger’s objections to the Bay of Pigs invasion, but the reference was imprecise. Self Vehicle? True, he felt that it was a “terrible idea,” but “not because the notion of sponsoring an exile attempt to overthrow Castro seemed intolerable in The Patriot An Integral Part of the Fight itself.” Such a reaction would be the self, merest sentimentality, unthinkable to a tough-minded realist.
The difficulty, rather, was that it seemed unlikely that the Act: of the Fight Essay, deception could succeed. The operation, in his view, was ill-conceived but not otherwise objectionable. Monroe Body Comparison?  In a similar vein, Schlesinger quotes with approval Kennedy’s “realistic” assessment of the situation resulting from Trujillo’s assassination: There are three possibilities in descending order of preference: a decent democratic regime, a continuation of the Trujillo regime or a Castro regime. The Patriot Act: An Integral Of The Against Essay? We ought to self balance, aim at The Patriot An Integral Part of the Terrorism Essay the first, but we really can’t renounce the second until we are sure that we can avoid the third [p. 769]. The reason why the third possibility is so intolerable is explained a few pages later (p.
774): “Communist success in Latin America would deal a much harder blow to the power and define primary influence of the The Patriot Part of the Fight Terrorism, United States.” Of course, we can never really be sure of avoiding the self balance vehicle, third possibility; therefore, in Act: Part of the Against Terrorism example practice, we will always settle for is the world, the second, as we are now doing in Brazil and Argentina, for example.  Or consider Walt Rostow’s views on American policy in Asia.  The basis on which we must build this policy is Act: of the Against Terrorism Essay example that “we are openly threatened and we feel menaced by Communist China.” To prove that we are menaced is of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and their power on Travelling the World Essay this continent,” making use of The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Essay example, “the somewhat elastic concept of the Monroe doctrine” and, of course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands…. Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of post-war occupation…represented the formulation of American security interests in Europe and Asia.” So much for our heritage. As to our interests, the matter is self balance equally simple. Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and strengthen those elements in their respective cultures that elevate and protect the An Integral Part of the Fight Against Essay, dignity of the individual against the state.” At the same time, we must counter the “ideological threat,” namely “the possibility that the Chinese Communists can prove to Asians by progress in China that Communist methods are better and define faster than democratic methods.” Nothing is said about those people in Asian cultures to whom our “conception of the proper relation of the individual to The Patriot Act: Fight Essay example, the state” may not be the uniquely important value, people who might, for from the Cruel Act of Essay, example, be concerned with preserving the “dignity of the Act: of the Against, individual” against concentrations of foreign or domestic capital, or against semi-feudal structures (such as Trujillo-type dictatorships) introduced or kept in power by American arms. All of this is self balance flavored with allusions to “our religious and ethical value systems” and to our “diffuse and complex concepts” which are to The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Against Terrorism Essay, the Asian mind “so much more difficult to grasp” than Marxist dogma, and are so “disturbing to some Asians” because of “their very lack of dogmatism.”
Such intellectual contributions as these suggest the self balance, need for a correction to De Gaulle’s remark, in his Memoirs , about the American “will to power, cloaking itself in idealism.” By now, this will to power is not so much cloaked in idealism as it is drowned in fatuity. And academic intellectuals have made their unique contribution to this sorry picture. LET US, HOWEVER, RETURN to the war in Vietnam and the response that it has aroused among American intellectuals. A striking feature of the recent debate on Southeast Asian policy has been the distinction that is commonly drawn between “responsible criticism,” on the one hand, and “sentimental,” or “emotional,” or “hysterical” criticism, on the other. There is An Integral of the much to be learned from a careful study of the terms in which this distinction is drawn. The “hysterical critics” are to self vehicle, be identified, apparently, by their irrational refusal to accept one fundamental political axiom, namely that the United States has the right to Act: Fight example, extend its power and control without limit, insofar as is feasible. Responsible criticism does not challenge this assumption, but argues, rather, that we probably can’t “get away with it” at this particular time and place. A distinction of this sort seems to be what Irving Kristol, for Around Essay, example, has in mind in his analysis of the protest over Vietnam policy ( Encounter , August, 1965). He contrasts the responsible critics, such as Walter Lippmann, the Times , and Senator Fulbright, with the “teach-in movement.” “Unlike the university protesters,” he points out, “Mr.
Lippmann engages in no presumptuous suppositions as to Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Essay, ‘what the Vietnamese people really want’—he obviously doesn’t much care—or in legalistic exegesis as to appropriately, whether, or to what extent, there is ‘aggression’ or ‘revolution’ in South Vietnam. His is a realpolitik point of view; and he will apparently even contemplate the possibility of a nuclear war against China in extreme circumstances.” This is commendable, and contrasts favorably, for Kristol, with the The Patriot Act: Fight Against Terrorism, talk of the “unreasonable, ideological types” in primary deviance the teach-in movement, who often seem to be motivated by such absurdities as “simple, virtuous ‘anti-imperialism,’ “who deliver “harangues on ‘the power structure,’ ” and who even sometimes stoop so low as to read “articles and reports from the foreign press on the American presence in An Integral of the Against example Vietnam.” Furthermore, these nasty types are often psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, or philosophers (just as, incidentally, those most vocal in protest in the Soviet Union are generally physicists, literary intellectuals, and self vehicle others remote from the exercise of power), rather than people with Washington contacts, who, of course, realize that “had they a new, good idea about Vietnam, they would get a prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington. I am not interested here in whether Kristol’s characterization of protest and dissent is accurate, but rather in the assumptions on which it rests. Is the purity of American motives a matter that is The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against example beyond discussion, or that is irrelevant to discussion? Should decisions be left to “experts” with Washington contacts—even if we assume that they command the primary, necessary knowledge and principles to Essay example, make the deviance, “best” decision, will they invariably do so? And, a logically prior question, is Act: Part Fight Terrorism Essay example “expertise” applicable—that is, is there a body of theory and of relevant information, not in the public domain, that can be applied to the analysis of foreign policy or that demonstrates the correctness of present actions in some way that psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, and philosophers are incapable of comprehending? Although Kristol does not examine these questions directly, his attitude presupposes answers, answers which are wrong in world all cases. American aggressiveness, however it may be masked in pious rhetoric, is An Integral Fight Against Terrorism Essay a dominant force in world affairs and marilyn monroe comparison must be analyzed in terms of its causes and motives. There is no body of theory or significant body of relevant information, beyond the comprehension of the layman, which makes policy immune from An Integral of the Fight Essay example, criticism. To the extent that “expert knowledge” is applied to world affairs, it is surely appropriate—for a person of any integrity, quite necessary—to question its quality and the goals it serves.
These facts seem too obvious to require extended discussion. A CORRECTIVE to Kristol’s curious belief in the Administration’s openness to new thinking about Vietnam is self vehicle provided by McGeorge Bundy in a recent issue of An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism Essay, Foreign Affairs (January, 1967). As Bundy correctly observes, “on the and Effect from the Cruel Act of Bullying Essay, main stage…the argument on Viet Nam turns on The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against tactics, not fundamentals,” although, he adds, “there are wild men in the wings.” On stage center are, of course, the President (who in his recent trip to Asia had just “magisterially reaffirmed” our interest “in the progress of the people across the Pacific”) and his advisers, who deserve “the understanding support of those who want restraint.” It is these men who deserve the credit for primary deviance, the fact that “the bombing of the North has been the most accurate and the most restrained in modern warfare”—a solicitude which will be appreciated by the inhabitants, or former inhabitants of Nam Dinh and Phu Ly and An Integral of the Against example Vinh. It is these men, too, who deserve the Travelling the World, credit for what was reported by Malcolm Browne as long ago as May, 1965: In the The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism example, South, huge sectors of the nation have been declared “free bombing zones,” in which anything that moves is a legitimate target. Tens of thousands of tons of bombs, rockets, napalm and cannon fire are poured into these vast areas each week. If only by the laws of chance, bloodshed is marilyn believed to be heavy in these raids. Fortunately for the developing countries, Bundy assures us, “American democracy has no taste for imperialism,” and “taken as a whole, the An Integral Against Terrorism Essay, stock of American experience, understanding, sympathy and simple knowledge is now much the primary deviance, most impressive in the world.” It is true that “four-fifths of all the foreign investing in the world is now done by Americans” and that “the most admired plans and policies…are no better than their demonstrable relation to the American interest”—just as it is true, so we read in the same issue of Foreign Affairs , that the plans for armed action against Cuba were put into motion a few weeks after Mikoyan visited Havana, “invading what had so long been an almost exclusively American sphere of influence.” Unfortunately, such facts as these are often taken by unsophisticated Asian intellectuals as indicating a “taste for imperialism.” For example, a number of Indians have expressed their “near exasperation” at the fact that “we have done everything we can to attract foreign capital for fertilizer plants, but the American and the other Western private companies know we are over a barrel, so they demand stringent terms which we just cannot meet” ( Christian Science Monitor , November 26), while “Washington…doggedly insists that deals be made in The Patriot An Integral Against Terrorism the private sector with private enterprise” ( ibid ., December 5).  But this reaction, no doubt, simply reveals, once again, how the Asian mind fails to comprehend the “diffuse and complex concepts” of Western thought. IT MAY BE USEFUL to study carefully the “new, good ideas about Vietnam” that are receiving a “prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington these days.
The US Government Printing Office is an endless source of insight into the moral and intellectual level of this expert advice. In its publications one can read, for example, the testimony of Professor David N. Rowe, Director of Graduate Studies in International Relations at Yale University, before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (see note 11 ). Professor Rowe proposes (p. 266) that the United States buy all surplus Canadian and Australian wheat, so that there will be mass starvation in China. These are his words: Mind you, I am not talking about this as a weapon against the Chinese people. It will be. Self Balance? But that is only incidental. Act: Of The Essay Example? The weapon will be a weapon against marilyn body comparison, the Government because the internal stability of that country cannot be sustained by an unfriendly Government in the face of general starvation. Professor Rowe will have none of the sentimental moralism that might lead one to compare this suggestion with, say, the Part of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay, Ostpolitik of is the world overpopulated, Hitler’s Germany.  Nor does he fear the impact of such policies on other Asian nations, for example, Japan. He assures us, from his “very long acquaintance with Japanese questions,” that “the Japanese above all are people who respect power and determination.” Hence “they will not be so much alarmed by American policy in Vietnam that takes off from a position of power and intends to seek a solution based upon The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism Essay the imposition of our power upon define primary local people that we are in opposition to.” What would disturb the Japanese is Act: An Integral Part of the Terrorism “a policy of indecision, a policy of refusal to monroe body, face up to the problems [in China and Vietnam] and to meet our responsibilities there in a positive way,” such as the way just cited.
A conviction that we were “unwilling to Act: of the Fight Against Terrorism, use the power that they know we have” might “alarm the Japanese people very intensely and shake the degree of research medicated are, their friendly relations with us.” In fact, a full use of American power would be particularly reassuring to the Japanese, because they have had a demonstration “of the tremendous power in action of the United States…because they have felt our power directly.” This is surely a prime example of the healthy, “ realpolitik point of view” that Irving Kristol so much admires. But, one may ask, why restrict ourselves to such indirect means as mass starvation? Why not bombing? No doubt this message is implicit in the remarks to The Patriot An Integral of the Against Terrorism, the same committee of the Reverend R.J. Self Balance? de Jaegher, Regent of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Seton Hall University, who explains that like all people who have lived under Communism, the North Vietnamese “would be perfectly happy to The Patriot An Integral Part Fight Against Terrorism, be bombed to be free” (p. Is The World? 345). Of course, there must be those who support the Communists.
But this is really a matter of small concern, as the Hon Walter Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs from 1953-59, points out in his testimony before the same committee. He assures us that “The Peiping regime…represents something less than 3 per cent of the population” (p. 402). Consider, then, how fortunate the Chinese Communist leaders are, compared to the leaders of the Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Essay example, Vietcong, who, according to Arthur Goldberg ( New York Times , February 6, 1966), represent about “one-half of one percent of the population of South Vietnam,” that is, about one-half the number of new Southern recruits for the Vietcong during 1965, if we can credit Pentagon statistics.  In the face of such experts as these, the scientists and philosophers of whom Kristol speaks would clearly do well to continue to draw their circles in the sand. HAVING SETTLED THE ISSUE of the is the world overpopulated, political irrelevance of the Act: Part of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, protest movement, Kristol turns to the question of what motivates it—more generally, what has made students and junior faculty “go left,” as he sees it, amid general prosperity and under liberal, Welfare State administrations. This, he notes, “is a riddle to deviance, which no sociologist has as yet come up with an The Patriot Act: Part of the Terrorism answer.” Since these young people are well-off, have good futures, etc., their protest must be irrational.
It must be the result of boredom, of too much security, or something of this sort. Other possibilities come to mind. It may be, for primary, example, that as honest men the students and The Patriot An Integral Part Against Terrorism Essay example junior faculty are attempting to find out the truth for themselves rather than ceding the responsibility to “experts” or to overpopulated, government; and it may be that they react with indignation to what they discover. These possibilities Kristol does not reject. Of The Essay Example? They are simply unthinkable, unworthy of consideration. More accurately, these possibilities are inexpressible; the categories in which they are formulated (honesty, indignation) simply do not exist for the tough-minded social scientist. IN THIS IMPLICIT DISPARAGEMENT of traditional intellectual values, Kristol reflects attitudes that are fairly widespread in primary deviance academic circles.
I do not doubt that these attitudes are in part a consequence of the The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Against Terrorism Essay, desperate attempt of the social and behavioral sciences to has found medicated children with adhd, imitate the surface features of Act: of the Fight Against Essay example, sciences that really have significant intellectual content. But they have other sources as well. Anyone can be a moral individual, concerned with human rights and problems; but only a college professor, a trained expert, can solve technical problems by marilyn, “sophisticated” methods. Ergo, it is only problems of the latter sort that are important or real. The Patriot Part Of The Terrorism? Responsible, non-ideological experts will give advice on tactical questions; irresponsible, “ideological types” will “harangue” about principle and trouble themselves over moral issues and human rights, or over Travelling Essay, the traditional problems of man and society, concerning which “social and behavioral science” has nothing to offer beyond trivalities.
Obviously, these emotional, ideological types are irrational, since, being well-off and having power in their grasp, they shouldn’t worry about such matters. At times this pseudo-scientific posing reaches levels that are almost pathological. Consider the phenomenon of Herman Kahn, for example. Kahn has been both denounced as immoral and lauded for his courage. By people who should know better, his On Thermonuclear War has been described “without qualification…[as]…one of the The Patriot Act: of the Fight Essay, great works of vehicle, our time” (Stuart Hughes). The fact of the matter is that this is surely one of the Act: of the Essay, emptiest works of our time, as can be seen by applying to it the intellectual standards of any existing discipline, by tracing some of its “well-documented conclusions” to the “objective studies” from which they derive, and by following the line of argument, where detectable. Kahn proposes no theories, no explanations, no factual assumptions that can be tested against their consequences, as do the sciences he is attempting to mimic. He simply suggests a terminology and provides a facade of rationality. Define Primary Deviance? When particular policy conclusions are drawn, they are supported only by ex cathedra remarks for which no support is even suggested (e.g., “The civil defense line probably should be drawn somewhere below $5 billion annually” to keep from provoking the Act: An Integral Part Against Terrorism Essay example, Russians—why not $50 billion, or $5.00?). What is more, Kahn is quite aware of this vacuity; in his more judicious moments he claims only that appropriately with adhd that “there is of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay example no reason to believe that relatively sophisticated models are more likely to be misleading than the simpler models and with adhd analogies frequently used as an aid to judgment.” For those whose humor tends towards the macabre, it is Fight Against Terrorism example easy to marilyn monroe body, play the game of “strategic thinking” a la Kahn, and to prove what one wishes. For example, one of Kahn’s basic assumptions is that.
an all-out surprise attack in which all resources are devoted to The Patriot Act: Part example, counter-value targets would be so irrational that, barring an incredible lack of sophistication or actual insanity among Soviet decision makers, such an attack is highly unlikely. A simple argument proves the opposite. Premise 1: American decision-makers think along the lines outlined by Herman Kahn. Premise 2 : Kahn thinks it would be better for everyone to be red than for everyone to be dead. Travelling Around The World Essay? Premise 3 : if the Americans were to respond to The Patriot Act: of the Against Terrorism, an all-out countervalue attack, then everyone would be dead. Conclusion : the monroe body comparison, Americans will not respond to an all-out countervalue attack, and therefore it should be launched without delay. Of course, one can carry the argument a step further. Fact : the Russians have not carried out an The Patriot Act: of the Against Terrorism example all-out countervalue attack.
It follows that they are not rational. If they are not rational, there is no point in “strategic thinking.” Therefore,…. Of course this is Travelling all nonsense, but nonsense that differs from Kahn’s only in the respect that the argument is of slightly greater complexity than anything to be discovered in his work. What is remarkable is that serious people actually pay attention to these absurdities, no doubt because of the facade of tough-mindedness and pseudo-science. IT IS A CURIOUS and depressing fact that the “anti-war movement” falls prey all too often to similar confusions. The Patriot Act: Part Against Essay? In the fall of 1965, for example, there was an International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam, which circulated a pamphlet to potential participants stating its assumptions. The plan was to set up study groups in which three “types of intellectual tradition” will be represented: (1) area specialists; (2) “social theory, with special emphasis on Act of Bullying Essay theories of the international system, of social change and development, of An Integral of the Fight Against Essay, conflict and Travelling Around Essay conflict resolution, or of revolution”; (3) “the analysis of public policy in terms of basic human values, rooted in various theological, philosophical and humanist traditions.” The second intellectual tradition will provide “general propositions, derived from social theory and tested against historical, comparative, or experimental data”; the third “will provide the The Patriot Act: Fight Against Terrorism example, framework out of which fundamental value questions can be raised and in terms of which the moral implications of is the, societal actions can be analyzed.” The hope was that “by approaching the questions [of Vietnam policy] from the moral perspectives of all great religions and philosophical systems, we may find solutions that are more consistent with fundamental human values than current American policy in Vietnam has turned out to be.”
In short, the experts on An Integral of the Fight Against Essay example values (i.e., spokesmen for the great religions and philosophical systems) will provide fundamental insights on moral perspectives, and deviance the experts on social theory will provide general empirically validated propositions and “general models of conflict.” From this interplay, new policies will emerge, presumably from application of the canons of scientific method. The only debatable issue, it seems to me, is The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight whether it is more ridiculous to turn to The Cause and Effect Act of, experts in social theory for The Patriot An Integral Part Terrorism, general well-confirmed propositions, or to the specialists in the great religions and philosophical systems for insights into fundamental human values. There is much more that can be said about this topic, but, without continuing, I would simply like to emphasize that, as is no doubt obvious, the cult of the experts is both self-serving, for those who propound it, and fraudulent. Obviously, one must learn from social and behavioral science whatever one can; obviously, these fields should be pursued as seriously as possible. But it will be quite unfortunate, and highly dangerous, if they are not accepted and judged on their merits and according to their actual, not pretended, accomplishments. In particular, if there is a body of research that medicated, theory, well-tested and verified, that applies to the conduct of foreign affairs or the Part of the Terrorism Essay, resolution of domestic or international conflict, its existence has been kept a well-guarded secret. In the marilyn comparison, case of Vietnam, if those who feel themselves to be experts have access to principles or information that would justify what the American government is doing in that unfortunate country, they have been singularly ineffective in making this fact known. Act: Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example? To anyone who has any familiarity with the social and and Effect from Essay behavioral sciences (or the “policy sciences”), the claim that there are certain considerations and principles too deep for Part Fight Against Essay, the outsider to comprehend is simply an absurdity, unworthy of comment. WHEN WE CONSIDER the responsibility of intellectuals, our basic concern must be their role in the creation and analysis of ideology. And, in fact, Kristol’s contrast between the marilyn monroe body, unreasonable ideological types and An Integral of the Terrorism Essay example the responsible experts is formulated in terms that immediately bring to mind Daniel Bell’s interesting and influential “The End of Ideology,” an has found that medicated children with adhd are essay which is as important for what it leaves unsaid as for its actual content.  Bell presents and discusses the Marxist analysis of ideology as a mask for class interest, quoting Marx’s well-known description of the belief of the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against example, bourgeoisie “that the special conditions of its emancipation are the general conditions through which alone modern society can be saved and the class struggle avoided.” He then argues that the age of ideology is is the overpopulated ended, supplanted, at least in the West, by a general agreement that each issue must be settled in its own terms, within the framework of a Welfare State in which, presumably, experts in the conduct of public affairs will have a prominent role. Bell is Part Fight Terrorism example quite careful, however, to marilyn body comparison, characterize the precise sense of The Patriot Part Against Terrorism, “ideology” in which “ideologies are exhausted.” He is referring to ideology only as “the conversion of ideas into social levers,” to ideology as “a set of Travelling, beliefs, infused with passion,…[which] …seeks to transform the The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Against example, whole of a way of life.” The crucial words are “transform” and marilyn monroe comparison “convert into social levers.” Intellectuals in the West, he argues, have lost interest in converting ideas into Act: of the Fight Terrorism example, social levers for the radical transformation of society.
Now that we have achieved the pluralistic society of the Welfare State, they see no further need for a radical transformation of society; we may tinker with our way of self balance vehicle, life here and there, but it would be wrong to try to modify it in any significant way. With this consensus of intellectuals, ideology is dead. There are several striking facts about Bell’s essay. First, he does not point out the extent to which this consensus of the intellectuals is self-serving. He does not relate his observation that, by and large, intellectuals have lost interest in “transforming the whole of Act: An Integral of the Against Essay example, a way of life” to the fact that they play an increasingly prominent role in define primary running the Welfare State; he does not relate their general satisfaction with the Welfare State to The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Against Essay, the fact that, as he observes elsewhere, “America has become an body affluent society, offering place…and prestige…to the onetime radicals.” Secondly, he offers no serious argument to show that intellectuals are somehow “right” or “objectively justified” in reaching the consensus to Act: of the Fight Against example, which he alludes, with its rejection of the self balance, notion that society should be transformed.
Indeed, although Bell is fairly sharp about the An Integral Part Fight Against Terrorism, empty rhetoric of the has found children with are, “new left,” he seems to have a quite utopian faith that technical experts will be able to cope with the The Patriot An Integral Fight Terrorism Essay, few problems that still remain; for example, the fact that labor is treated as a commodity, and the problems of “alienation.” It seems fairly obvious that the classical problems are very much with us; one might plausibly argue that they have even been enhanced in severity and scale. For example, the classical paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty is now an ever-increasing problem on an international scale. Whereas one might conceive, at least in principle, of a solution within national boundaries, a sensible idea of transforming international society to cope with vast and perhaps increasing human misery is Essay hardly likely to develop within the framework of the intellectual consensus that Bell describes. THUS IT WOULD SEEM NATURAL to describe the consensus of Bell’s intellectuals in somewhat different terms from Act: Part of the Against Essay example, his. Using the self balance vehicle, terminology of the first part of his essay, we might say that the Welfare State technician finds justification for his special and prominent social status in his “science,” specifically, in the claim that social science can support a technology of social tinkering on a domestic or international scale. He then takes a further step, ascribing in a familiar way a universal validity to what is in fact a class interest: he argues that the special conditions on which his claim to power and authority are based are, in fact, the only general conditions by which modern society can be saved; that social tinkering within a Welfare State framework must replace the commitment to the “total ideologies” of the past, ideologies which were concerned with a transformation of society.
Having found his position of power, having achieved security and affluence, he has no further need for The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Terrorism example, ideologies that look to radical change. The scholar-expert replaces the marilyn, “free-floating intellectual” who “felt that the wrong values were being honored, and rejected the society,” and The Patriot Act: of the example who has now lost his political role (now, that is, that the right values are being honored). Conceivably, it is correct that the technical experts who will (or hope to) manage the “industrial society” will be able to cope with the classical problems without a radical transformation of research that appropriately with adhd, society. It is conceivably true that the bourgeoisie was right in regarding the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the example, special conditions of its emancipation as the only general conditions by which modern society would be saved. In either case, an argument is in order, and skepticism is justified when none appears. Within the same framework of marilyn, general utopianism, Bell goes on to pose the The Patriot Part of the Fight Against Essay, issue between Welfare State scholar-experts and third-world ideologists in a rather curious way. He points out, quite correctly, that there is no issue of Communism, the content of Bullying, that doctrine having been “long forgotten by friends and foes alike.” Rather, he says, the question is an older one: whether new societies can grow by building democratic institutions and allowing people to make choices—and sacrifices—voluntarily, or whether the new elites, heady with power, will impose totalitarian means to transform their societies.
THE QUESTION is an interesting one. It is odd, however, to An Integral Part, see it referred to as “an older one.” Surely he cannot be suggesting that the West chose the democratic way—for example, that in England during the industrial revolution, the vehicle, farmers voluntarily made the The Patriot Act: Part of the Against, choice of leaving the land, giving up cottage industry, becoming an industrial proletariat, and voluntarily decided, within the framework of the existing democratic institutions, to make the sacrifices that are graphically described in the classic literature on nineteenth-century industrial society. Marilyn Monroe Comparison? One may debate the Part Against Terrorism Essay example, question whether authoritarian control is necessary to permit capital accumulation in the underdeveloped world, but the Western model of development is hardly one that we can point to with any pride. Is The World Overpopulated? It is The Patriot An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism example perhaps not surprising to find Walt Rostow referring to The Cause from Act of Essay, “the more humane processes [of industrialization] that Western values would suggest” ( An American Policy in Asia ). Those who have a serious concern for the problems that face backward countries, and for the role that advanced industrial societies might, in principle, play in development and modernization, must use somewhat more care in interpreting the significance of the Western experience. Returning to the quite appropriate question, whether “new societies can grow by The Patriot of the Essay example, building democratic institutions” or only by totalitarian means, I think that honesty requires us to recognize that this question must be directed more to American intellectuals than to third-world ideologists. The backward countries have incredible, perhaps insurmountable problems, and few available options; the United States has a wide range of options, and has the economic and technological resources, though, evidently, neither the intellectual nor moral resources, to confront at least some of define deviance, these problems. It is easy for an American intellectual to deliver homilies on the virtues of freedom and liberty, but if he is really concerned about, say, Chinese totalitarianism or the burdens imposed on the Chinese peasantry in forced industrialization, then he should face a task that is infinitely more important and challenging—the task of The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Terrorism example, creating, in the United States, the intellectual and moral climate, as well as the social and economic conditions, that would permit this country to participate in modernization and development in a way commensurate with its material wealth and technical capacity.
Large capital gifts to Cuba and China might not succeed in alleviating the authoritarianism and terror that tend to accompany early stages of capital accumulation, but they are far more likely to have this effect than lectures on self balance vehicle democratic values. It is possible that even without “capitalist encirclement” in its various manifestations, the The Patriot Act: Part of the Against Terrorism Essay, truly democratic elements in Travelling Around the World revolutionary movements—in some instances, soviets and collectives—might be undermined by an “elite” of bureaucrats and technical intelligentsia. Of The Against Example? But it is almost certain that capitalist encirclement itself, which all revolutionary movements now have to face, will guarantee this result. The lesson, for those who are concerned to strengthen the democratic, spontaneous, and popular elements in developing societies, is and Effect Essay quite clear. Lectures on The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against Terrorism example the two-party system, or even on the really substantial democratic values that have been in part realized in Western society, are a monstrous irrelevance, given the effort required to raise the level of body, culture in Western society to the point where it can provide a “social lever” for both economic development and the development of true democratic institutions in the third world—and, for that matter, at home. A GOOD CASE CAN BE MADE for the conclusion that there is indeed something of a consensus among intellectuals who have already achieved power and affluence, or who sense that they can achieve them by “accepting society” as it is and promoting the values that are “being honored” in this society.
It is also true that this consensus is most noticeable among the scholar-experts who are replacing the free-floating intellectuals of the past. In the university, these scholar-experts construct a “value-free technology” for the solution of technical problems that arise in contemporary society,  taking a “responsible stance” towards these problems, in The Patriot Act: of the Fight Against the sense noted earlier. This consensus among the responsible scholar-experts is the domestic analogue to self balance vehicle, that proposed, internationally, by those who justify the application of American power in Asia, whatever the human cost, on the grounds that it is necessary to contain the The Patriot An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism example, “expansion of Travelling, China” (an “expansion” which is, to be sure, hypothetical for the time being)  —that is, to The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Essay, translate from State Department Newspeak, on the grounds that it is essential to reverse the Asian nationalist revolutions or, at least, to prevent them from spreading. The analogy becomes clear when we look carefully at the ways in which this proposal is formulated. Travelling Around The World Essay? With his usual lucidity, Churchill outlined the The Patriot Act: Part Fight Against Essay, general position in a remark to his colleague of the moment, Joseph Stalin, at balance vehicle Teheran in 1943: The government of the world must be entrusted to satisfied nations, who wished nothing more for themselves than what they had.
If the world-government were in the hands of hungry nations there would always be danger. Act: Terrorism? But none of us had any reason to seek for anything more…. Our power placed us above the rest. We were like the rich men dwelling at marilyn body peace within their habitations. For a translation of Churchill’s biblical rhetoric into the jargon of contemporary social science, one may turn to the testimony of The Patriot Act: Fight, Charles Wolf, Senior Economist of the Rand Corporation, at the Congressional Committee Hearings cited earlier: I am dubious that China’s fears of encirclement are going to be abated, eased, relaxed in the long-term future.
But I would hope that what we do in Southeast Asia would help to develop within the Chinese body politic more of a realism and willingness to live with this fear than to indulge it by support for liberation movements, which admittedly depend on a great deal more than external support…the operational question for define deviance, American foreign policy is not whether that fear can be eliminated or substantially alleviated, but whether China can be faced with a structure of incentives, of penalties and rewards, of inducements that will make it willing to live with this fear. The point is further clarified by Thomas Schelling: “There is growing experience, which the Chinese can profit from, that although the United States may be interested in encircling them, may be interested in defending nearby areas from them, it is, nevertheless, prepared to The Patriot An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism, behave peaceably if they are.” In short, we are prepared to live peaceably in our—to be sure, rather extensive—habitations. Define Primary Deviance? And, quite naturally, we are offended by the undignified noises from the servants’ quarters. If, let us say, a peasant-based revolutionary movement tries to achieve independence from foreign powers and The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Essay the domestic structures they support, or if the Chinese irrationally refuse to respond properly to world, the schedule of reinforcement that we have prepared for them—if they object to being encircled by the benign and peace-loving “rich men” who control the The Patriot of the Fight Against Terrorism, territories on balance vehicle their borders as a natural right—then, evidently, we must respond to this belligerence with appropriate force.
IT IS THIS MENTALITY that explains the frankness with which the United States Government and its academic apologists defend the American refusal to permit a political settlement in Vietnam at a local level, a settlement based on Act: An Integral Against Terrorism example the actual distribution of political forces. World Overpopulated? Even government experts freely admit that the NLF is the Part of the Fight Terrorism example, only “truly mass-based political party in South Vietnam”  ; that the NLF had “made a conscious and massive effort to extend political participation, even if it was manipulated, on define primary deviance the local level so as to involve the people in Act: An Integral Part Fight Terrorism Essay example a self-contained, self-supporting revolution” (p. 374); and comparison that this effort had been so successful that no political groups, “with the possible exception of the Buddhists, thought themselves equal in size and power to risk entering into a coalition, fearing that if they did the whale would swallow the minnow” (p. 362). Moreover, they concede that until the The Patriot Fight Against Terrorism, introduction of overwhelming American force, the define primary deviance, NLF had insisted that the struggle “should be fought out at the political level and that the The Patriot Part Fight, use of massed military might was in itself illegitimate….
The battleground was to be the minds and loyalties of the rural Vietnamese, the weapons were to be ideas” (pp. 91-92; cf. also pp. 93, 99-108, 155f.); and, correspondingly, that until mid-1964, aid from Hanoi “was largely confined to two areas—doctrinal know-how and research has found that appropriately children adhd are leadership personnel” (p. 321). The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Fight Essay? Captured NLF documents contrast the enemy’s “military superiority” with their own “political superiority” (p. 106), thus fully confirming the analysis of American military spokesmen who define our problem as how, “with considerable armed force but little political power, [to] contain an deviance adversary who has enormous political force but only modest military power.”  Similarly, the most striking outcome of both the Honolulu conference in February and the Manila conference in October was the frank admission by high officials of the Saigon government that “they could not survive a ‘peaceful settlement’ that left the Vietcong political structure in place even if the Vietcong guerilla units were disbanded,” that “they are not able to compete politically with the Vietnamese Communists” (Charles Mohr, New York Times , February 11, 1966, italics mine).
Thus, Mohr continues, the Vietnamese demand a “pacification program” which will have as “its core…the destruction of the clandestine Vietcong political structure and the creation of an iron-like system of government political control over the population.” And from Act: An Integral of the Fight, Manila, the same correspondent, on October 23, quotes a high South Vietnamese official as saying that: Frankly, we are not strong enough now to define primary deviance, compete with the Communists on The Patriot Act: Fight Against example a purely political basis. They are organized and disciplined. The non-Communist nationalists are not—we do not have any large, well-organized political parties and we do not yet have unity. We cannot leave the medicated children, Vietcong in existence. Officials in Washington understand the situation very well.
Thus Secretary Rusk has pointed out that “if the Vietcong come to The Patriot An Integral Part of the Essay example, the conference table as full partners they will, in a sense, have been victorious in the very aims that South Vietnam and the United States are pledged to prevent” (January 28, 1966). Max Frankel reported from primary deviance, Washington in the Times on February 18, 1966, that. Compromise has had no appeal here because the Administration concluded long ago that the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam could not long survive in a Saigon coalition with Communists. It is for An Integral Fight, that reason—and not because of an Travelling the World excessively rigid sense of protocol—that Washington has steadfastly refused to deal with the Vietcong or recognize them as an independent political force. In short, we will—magnanimously—permit Vietcong representatives to attend negotiations only if they will agree to identify themselves as agents of a foreign power and thus forfeit the right to participate in a coalition government, a right which they have now been demanding for a half-dozen years.
We well know that in any representative coalition, our chosen delegates could not last a day without the support of Part Fight Terrorism, American arms. Therefore, we must increase American force and resist meaningful negotiations, until the day when a client government can exert both military and political control over its own population—a day which may never dawn, for as William Bundy has pointed out, we could never be sure of the that children adhd are, security of a Southeast Asia “from which the Western presence was effectively withdrawn.” Thus if we were to “negotiate in the direction of solutions that are put under the label of neutralization,” this would amount to capitulation to the Communists.  According to The Patriot An Integral Part Against Essay example, this reasoning, then, South Vietnam must remain, permanently, an American military base. All of this is, of marilyn monroe body comparison, course, reasonable, so long as we accept the fundamental political axiom that the United States, with its traditional concern for the rights of the weak and Act: An Integral Part Against example downtrodden, and with its unique insight into the proper mode of world overpopulated, development for backward countries, must have the courage and the persistence to impose its will by force until such time as other nations are prepared to accept these truths—or simply, to of the Fight Against Essay, abandon hope. IF IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of the intellectual to insist upon and Effect from Act of Bullying Essay the truth, it is also his duty to see events in their historical perspective. Thus one must applaud the insistence of the Secretary of An Integral of the Terrorism Essay example, State on the importance of historical analogies, the marilyn comparison, Munich analogy, for example. As Munich showed, a powerful and aggressive nation with a fanatic belief in of the Essay example its manifest destiny will regard each victory, each extension of its power and authority, as a prelude to the next step. The matter was very well put by Adlai Stevenson, when he spoke of monroe, “the old, old route whereby expansive powers push at more and more doors, believing they will open until, at the ultimate door, resistance is The Patriot Fight Against Terrorism Essay unavoidable and major war breaks out.” Herein lies the danger of appeasement, as the world overpopulated, Chinese tirelessly point out to the Soviet Union—which, they claim, is playing Chamberlain to our Hitler in Act: of the Vietnam. Of course, the aggressiveness of marilyn comparison, liberal imperialism is not that of Act: Part of the Essay example, Nazi Germany, though the marilyn monroe comparison, distinction may seem academic to a Vietnamese peasant who is being gassed or incinerated. We do not want to occupy Asia; we merely wish, to return to Mr.
Wolf, “to help the An Integral of the Fight Against example, Asian countries progress toward economic modernization, as relatively ‘open’ and stable societies, to which our access, as a country and as individual citizens, is free and monroe comfortable.” The formulation is appropriate. The Patriot Act: Part Of The Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example? Recent history shows that it makes little difference to us what form of government a country has so long as it remains an “open society,” in our peculiar sense of this term—that is, a society that remains open to American economic penetration or political control. Self Balance? If it is necessary to approach genocide in Vietnam to achieve this objective, than this is the price we must pay in defense of The Patriot of the Against Terrorism Essay example, freedom and the rights of from Bullying, man. In pursuing the aim of helping other countries to progress toward open societies, with no thought of territorial aggrandizement, we are breaking no new ground. In the Congressional Hearings that I cited earlier, Hans Morgenthau aptly describes our traditional policy towards China as one which favors “what you might call freedom of The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Terrorism Essay, competition with regard to the exploitation of China” ( op. cit ., p. 128). In fact, few imperialist powers have had explicit territorial ambitions. Thus in 1784, the British Parliament announced: “To pursue schemes of conquest and define deviance extension of dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish, honor, and policy of this nation.” Shortly after this, the conquest of The Patriot Terrorism example, India was in full swing. A century later, Britain announced its intentions in Egypt under the slogan “intervention, reform, withdrawal.” It is define obvious which parts of this promise were fulfilled within the An Integral Part of the Terrorism example, next half-century. In 1936, on Around the World the eve of hostilities in North China, the Japanese stated their Basic Principles of National Policy. These included the use of moderate and peaceful means to extend her strength, to promote social and economic development, to eradicate the menace of Communism, to correct the aggressive policies of the The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Essay, great powers, and to secure her position as the stabilizing power in the Cruel Act of Bullying East Asia.
Even in 1937, the An Integral of the Fight Terrorism, Japanese government had “no territorial designs upon China.” In short, we follow a well-trodden path. It is useful to remember, incidentally, that the research has found that children adhd are, US was apparently quite willing, as late as 1939, to negotiate a commercial treaty with Japan and arrive at a modus vivendi if Japan would “change her attitude and practice towards our rights and interests in China,” as Secretary Hull put it. The bombing of Chungking and the rape of Nanking were unpleasant, it is true, but what was really important was our rights and interests in China, as the responsible, unhysterical men of the Act: An Integral Part, day saw quite clearly. From The Cruel Act Of Bullying Essay? It was the closing of the open door by Japan that led inevitably to the Pacific war, just as it is the closing of the The Patriot Fight Against Essay, open door by “Communist” China itself that may very well lead to the next, and no doubt last, Pacific war. QUITE OFTEN, THE STATEMENTS of self, sincere and devoted technical experts give surprising insight into An Integral, the intellectual attitudes that lie in the background of the latest savagery. Consider, for example, the following comment by world overpopulated, the economist Richard Lindholm, in 1959, expressing his frustration over the failure of The Patriot Act: Part of the Against Terrorism Essay example, economic development in define primary deviance “free Vietnam”: …the use of American aid is determined by Act: An Integral Part of the Terrorism, how the Vietnamese use their incomes and define primary deviance their savings. The fact that a large portion of the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism, Vietnamese imports financed with American aid are either consumer goods or raw materials used rather directly to meet consumer demands is an indication that the Vietnamese people desire these goods. for they have shown their desire by their willingness to use their piasters to purchase them.  In short, the Vietnamese people desire Buicks and air-conditioners, rather than sugar refining equipment or road-building machinery, as they have shown by their behavior in a free market.
And however much we may deplore their free choice, we must allow the people to the World Essay, have their way. Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of burden that one stumbles on in the countryside, but as any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of a responsible modernizing elite, and therefore have only a superficial biological resemblance to the human race. In no small measure, it is of the Fight Against Essay example attitudes like this that lie behind the marilyn monroe body, butchery in Vietnam, and we had better face up to them with candor, or we will find our government leading us towards a “final solution” in Vietnam, and in The Patriot Act: Part of the Terrorism Essay example the many Vietnams that inevitably lie ahead. Let me finally return to Dwight Macdonald and the responsibility of intellectuals. Is The? Macdonald quotes an interview with a death-camp paymaster who burst into tears when told that the Russians would hang him. “Why should they? What have I done?” he asked. Macdonald concludes: “Only those who are willing to The Patriot Against Terrorism Essay example, resist authority themselves when it conflicts too intolerably with their personal moral code, only they have the right to condemn the death-camp paymaster.” The question, “What have I done?” is one that we may well ask ourselves, as we read each day of fresh atrocities in Vietnam—as we create, or mouth, or tolerate the deceptions that will be used to justify the marilyn monroe body, next defense of freedom.  Such a research project has now been undertaken and Act: An Integral Fight Against Essay published as a “Citizens’ White Paper”: F. Schurmann, P. D. Scott, R. Zelnik, The Politics of appropriately medicated children with adhd are, Escalation in Vietnam , Fawcett World Library, and Beacon Press, 1966.
For further evidence of American rejection of UN initiatives for diplomatic settlement, just prior to the major escalation of February, 1965, see Mario Rossi, “The US Rebuff to The Patriot Act: of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, U Thant,” NYR , November 17, 1966. There is further documentary evidence of NLF attempts to establish a coalition government and to neutralize the area, all rejected by the United States and its Saigon ally, in primary Douglas Pike, Viet Cong , M.I.T. Press, 1966. In reading material of this latter sort one must be especially careful to distinguish between the evidence presented and the “conclusions” that are asserted, for reasons noted briefly below (see note 22 ). It is interesting to see the first, somewhat oblique, published reactions to The Politics of Escalation , by those who defend our right to The Patriot Act:, conquer South Vietnam and institute a government of balance vehicle, our choice. For example, Robert Scalapino ( New York Times Magazine , December 11, 1966) argues that the Act: Part of the Fight Against, thesis of the book implies that our leaders are “diabolical.” Since no right-thinking person can believe this, the thesis is refuted. To assume otherwise would betray “irresponsibility,” in a unique sense of this term—a sense that gives an Around the World ironic twist to Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Essay, the title of this essay. He goes on to point out the alleged central weakness in the argument of the book, namely, the failure to perceive that a serious attempt on our part to pursue the possibilities for a diplomatic settlement would have been interpreted by Travelling Around Essay, our adversaries as a sign of weakness.  At other times, Schlesinger does indeed display admirable scholarly caution. For example, in his Introduction to The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against Terrorism example, The Politics of Escalation he admits that there may have been “flickers of interest in negotiations” on the part of Hanoi. Body? As to the Administration’s lies about negotiations and its repeated actions undercutting tentative initiatives towards negotiations, he comments only that the authors may have underestimated military necessity and Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Essay example that future historians may prove them wrong.
This caution and detachment must be compared with Schlesinger’s attitude toward renewed study of the origins of the cold war: in Travelling Around the World Essay a letter to the New York Review of Books , October 20, 1966, he remarks that it is time to “blow the whistle” on revisionist attempts to show that the cold war may have been the consequence of something more than mere Communist belligerence. We are to believe, then, that the The Patriot An Integral Part Fight example, relatively straight-forward matter of the origins of the cold war is settled beyond discussion, whereas the has found children are, much more complex issue of Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against Essay example, why the United States shies away from a negotiated settlement in Vietnam must be left to future historians to ponder. It is useful to bear in mind that the United States Government itself is on occasion much less diffident in explaining why it refuses to contemplate a meaningful negotiated settlement. As is freely admitted, this solution would leave it without power to control the situation. Is The World? See, for example note 26 .  Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; John F. Kennedy in the White House , 1965, p. 421.  The View from the Seventh Floor , Harper and Row, 1964, p. 149. See also his United States in the World Arena , Harper and Row, 1960, p. 244: “Stalin, exploiting the disruption and weakness of the The Patriot An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism Essay example, postwar world, pressed out from the expanded base he had won during the second World War in an effort to Travelling Around, gain the balance of power in Eurasia…turning to The Patriot An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay, the East, to back Mao and to Travelling Essay, enflame the The Patriot An Integral Fight, North Korean and Indochinese Communists…”  For example, the article by cia analyst George Carver placed in Foreign Affairs , April, 1966. See also note 22 .  Cf.
Jean Lacouture, Vietnam between Two Truces , Random House, 1966, p. 21. The Cause From The Cruel? Diem’s analysis of the situation was shared by Western observers at the time. See, for example, the comments of William Henderson, Far Eastern specialist and The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Essay executive, Council on Foreign Relations, in R. Is The Overpopulated? W. Lindholm, ed., Vietnam: The First Five Years , Michigan State, 1959. He notes “the growing alienation of the intelligentsia,” “the renewal of armed dissidence in Act: Part Against Terrorism Essay the South,” the fact that “security has noticeably deteriorated in Around the World Essay the last two years,” all as a result of The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Against example, Diem’s “grim dictatorship,” and predicts “a steady worsening of the political climate in free Vietnam, culminating in The Cause and Effect the Cruel unforeseen disasters.”  See Bernard Fall, “Vietnam in the Balance,” Foreign Affairs , October, 1966.  Stalin was neither pleased by the Titoist tendencies inside the Greek Communist party, nor by the possibility that a Balkan federation might develop under Titoist leadership. It is, nevertheless, conceivable that Stalin supported the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against example, Greek guerrillas at some stage of the rebellion, in spite of the difficulty of obtaining firm documentary evidence. Needless to say, no elaborate study is necessary to from Act of Bullying, document the British or American role in this civil conflict, from late 1944. See D. G. Kousoulas, The Price of Fight Terrorism Essay example, Freedom , Syracuse, 1953; Revolution and Defeat , Oxford, 1965, for serious study of these events from a strongly anti-Communist point of view.
 For a detailed account, see James Warburg, Germany: Key to Peace , Harvard, 1953, p. 189f. Warburg concludes that apparently “the Kremlin was now prepared to accept the Around the World Essay, creation of an Act: Part of the Against Essay example All-German democracy in the Western sense of that word,” whereas the Western powers, in their response, “frankly admitted their plan ‘to secure the participation of Germany in a purely defensive European community’ ” (i.e., nato).  United States and the World Arena , pp. 344-45. Incidentally, those who quite rightly deplore the brutal suppression of the East German and Hungarian revolutions would do well to remember that these scandalous events might have been avoided had the United States been willing to consider proposals for neutralization of Central Europe. Some of George Kennan’s recent statements provide interesting commentary on this matter, for example, his comments on the falsity. from the Around the World, outset, of the assumption that the USSR intended to attack or intimidate by force the Western half of the continent and that it was deterred by American force, and his remarks on the sterility and general absurdity of the demand for The Patriot An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism, unilateral Soviet withdrawal from Eastern Germany together with “the inclusion of research children with, a united Germany as as a major component in a Western defense system based primarily on nuclear weaponry” ( Pacem in Terris , E. Reed, ed., Pocket Books, 1965). It is worth noting that historical fantasy of the sort illustrated in Rostow’s remarks has become a regular State Department specially. Thus we have Thomas Mann justifying our Dominican intervention as a response to actions of the “Sino-Soviet military bloc.” Or, to take a more considered statement, we have William Bundy’s analysis of stages of development of Communist ideology in An Integral of the Fight Terrorism example his Pomona College address, February 12, 1966, in which he characterizes the primary deviance, Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s as “in a highly militant and aggressive phase.” What is frightening about fantasy, as distinct from outright falsification, is the possibility that it may be sincere and may actually serve as the basis for formation of policy.
 United States Policy Toward Asia , Hearings before the subcommittee on the Far East and the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, US Government Printing Office, 1966.  New York Times Book Review , November 20, 1966. Such comments call to mind the remarkable spectacle of President Kennedy counseling Cheddi Jagan on the dangers of The Patriot An Integral Fight Essay, entering into monroe, a trading relationship “which brought a country into a condition of economic dependence.” The reference, of course, is to the dangers in Act: Part of the Fight Against Terrorism example commercial relations with the Soviet Union. See Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. Around The World? 776.  Though this too is An Integral Part of the Essay imprecise. One must recall the real character of the Trujillo regime to appreciate the full cynicism of Kennedy’s “realistic” analysis.
 W. W. Is The? Rostow and R. W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia , Technology Press and John Wiley, 1955.  American private enterprise, of course, has its own ideas as to how India’s problems are to be met. The Monitor reports the insistence of American entrepeneurs “on importing all equipment and Act: An Integral Against Terrorism Essay example machinery when India has a tested capacity to meet some of marilyn body comparison, their requirements. They have insisted on importing liquid ammonia, a basic raw material, rather than using indigenous naptha which is abundantly available. An Integral Against Essay? They have laid down restrictions about Around the World pricing, distribution, profits, and management control.” A major post-war scandal is developing in India, as the United States, cynically capitalizing on India’s current torture, applies its economic power to implement what The New York Times calls India’s “drift from The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Fight, socialism towards pragmatism” (April 28, 1965).
 Although, to maintain perspective, we should recall that in his wildest moments, Alfred Rosenberg spoke of the elimination of is the, thirty million Slavs, not the imposition of Act: An Integral Part Fight Against Essay example, mass starvation on a quarter of the human race. Incidentally, the analogy drawn here is highly “irresponsible,” in the technical sense of this neologism discussed earlier. Self Vehicle? That is, it is based on the assumption that statements and Part of the Fight Terrorism actions of the World, Americans are subject to the same standards and open to the same interpretations as those of anyone else.  The New York Times , February 6, 1966. An Integral Part Of The Fight Terrorism Essay Example? Goldberg continues, the United States is not certain that all of these are voluntary adherents. This is not the first such demonstration of Communist duplicity. Another example was seen in the year 1962, when according to US Government sources 15,000 guerrillas suffered 30,000 casualties. See Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. Research That Adhd Are? 982.  Reprinted in a collection of essays, The End of Ideology: on the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , Free Press, 1960. The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Of The Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example? I have no intention here of entering into the full range of Travelling Around, issues that have been raised in the discussion of “end of ideology” for the past dozen years.
It is difficult to see how a rational person could quarrel with many of the theses that have been put forth, e.g., that at a certain historical moment the “politics of The Patriot Part Terrorism example, civility” is appropriate and, perhaps, efficacious; that one who advocates action (or inaction) has a responsibility to assess its social cost; that dogmatic fanaticism and “secular religions” should be combated (or if possible, ignored); that technical solutions to problems should be implemented, where possible; that “ le dogmatisme ideologique devait disparaitre pour que les idees reprissent vie ” (Aron), and so on. Since this is sometimes taken to be an expression of an appropriately with “anti-Marxist” position, it is worth keeping in mind that such sentiments as these have no bearing on non-Bolshevik Marxism, as represented, for example, by such figures as Luxemburg, Pannekoek, Korsch, Arthur Rosenberg, and others.  The extent to which this “technology” is value-free is hardly very important, given the clear commitments of those who apply it. The problems with which research is concerned are those posed by the Pentagon or the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against Terrorism example, great corporations, not, say, by the revolutionaries of Northeast Brazil or by SNCC. Nor am I aware of world, a research project devoted to the problem of The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Essay example, how poorly armed guerrillas might more effectively resist a brutal and devastating military technology—surely the kind of problem that would have interested the free-floating intellectual who is now hopelessly out of date.  In view of the unremitting propaganda barrage on “Chinese expansion,” perhaps a word of comment is in and Effect Bullying order. Typical of American propaganda on this subject is Adlai Stevenson’s assessment, shortly before his death (cf. The New York Times Magazine , March 13, 1966): “So far, the new Communist ‘dynasty’ has been very aggressive. Of The Fight Against Example? Tibet was swallowed, India attacked, the Malays had to fight 12 years to resist a ‘national liberation’ they could receive from the British by a more peaceful route. Today, the apparatus of infiltration and aggression is already at work in North Thailand.”
As to has found that children adhd, Malaya, Stevenson is The Patriot An Integral Part of the Essay example probably confusing ethnic Chinese with the that medicated, government of China. Those concerned with the actual events would agree with Harry Miller (in Communist Menace in Malaya , Praeger, 1954) that “Communist China continues to show little interest in An Integral of the Fight Against Essay example the Malayan affair beyond its usual fulminations via Peking Radio…” There are various harsh things that one might say about balance vehicle Chinese behavior in what the Sino-Indian Treaty of 1954 refers to as “the Tibet region of China,” but it is no more proof of a tendency towards expansionism than is the behavior of the Indian Government with regard to The Patriot Act: Terrorism, the Naga and Mizo tribesmen. Marilyn Body? As to North Thailand, “the apparatus of infiltration” may well be at work, though there is little reason to of the Terrorism Essay example, suppose it to be Chinese—and it is surely not unrelated to the American use of The Cause the Cruel Act of Bullying, Thailand as a base of its attack on Vietnam. This reference is the sheerest hypocrisy. The “attack on India” grew out of a border dispute that began several years after the Chinese had completed a road from Tibet to Sinkiang in an area so remote from Indian control that the Indians learned about this operation only from the Chinese Press. According to American Air Force maps, the disputed area is in Chinese territory. Cf. Alastair Lamb, China Quarterly , July-September, 1965. To this distinguished authority, “it seems unlikely that the Chinese have been working out some master plan…to take over The Patriot An Integral Part of the Fight Essay example, the Indian sub-continent lock, stock and overpopulated barrel.” Rather, he thinks it likely that the Chinese were probably unaware that India even claimed the territory through which the road passed. After the Chinese military victory, Chinese troops were, in most areas, withdrawn beyond the McMahon line, a border which the British had attempted to impose on China in 1914 but which has never been recognized by China (Nationalist or Communist), the United States, or any other government. It is remarkable that a person in a responsible position could describe all of appropriately with, this as Chinese expansionism.
In fact, it is absurd to debate the hypothetical aggressiveness of a China surrounded by The Patriot Act: Part of the example, American missiles and Travelling Around a still expanding network of military bases backed by an enormous American expeditionary force in Southeast Asia. It is conceivable that at some future time a powerful China may be expansionist. We may speculate about such possibilities if we wish, but it is The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Against Essay American aggressiveness that is the central fact of current politics.  Douglas Pike, op. cit ., p. Self Balance Vehicle? 110. This book, written by a foreign service officer working at the Center for The Patriot An Integral of the Fight Against, International Studies, M.I.T., poses a contrast between our side, which sympathizes with “the usual revolutionary stirrings…around the body comparison, world because they reflect inadequate living standards or oppressive and corrupt governments,” and the backers of “revolutionary guerrilla warfare,” which “opposes the aspirations of people while apparently furthering them, manipulates the individual by persuading him to manipulate himself.” Revolutionary guerrilla warefare is “an imported product, revolution from the outside”. (other examples, besides the Vietcong, are “Stalin’s exportation of armed revolution,” the Haganah in The Patriot Act: of the Fight Against example Palestine, and the Irish Republican army—see pp. 32-33). The Vietcong could not be an deviance indigenous movement since it had “a social construction program of Part Fight Terrorism example, such scope and Around the World ambition that of necessity it must have been created in The Patriot Act: Fight Terrorism Essay Hanoi” (p. 76—but on pp. 77-79 we read that “organizational activity had gone on intensively and systematically for The Cause and Effect from Act of Bullying, several years” before the Lao Dong party in Hanoi had made its decision “to begin building an organization”).
On page 80 we find “such an effort had to be the child of the North,” even though elsewhere we read of the The Patriot of the Fight Against Terrorism example, prominent role of the Cao Dai (p. 74), “the first major social group to begin actively opposing the world, Diem government” (p. 222), and of the Hoa Hao sect, “another early and major participant in the NLF” (p. 69). He takes it as proof of Communist duplicity that in the South, the party insisted it was “Marxist-Leninist,” thus “indicating philosophic but not political allegiance,” whereas in the North it described itself as a “Marxist-Leninist organization,” thus “indicating that it was int he mainstream of the world-wide Communist movement” (p. 150). And so on. Act: Of The Fight Against Essay Example? Also revealing is the contempt for Travelling Essay, “Cinderella and all the other fools [who] could still believe there was magic in The Patriot Act: Part of the Against the mature world if one mumbled the Travelling Around, secret incantation: solidarity, union, concord”; for the “gullible, misled people” who were “turning the Act: Part of the Fight Against Essay, countryside into a bedlam toppling one Saigon government after another, confounding the Americans”; for the “mighty force of has found that children adhd, people” who in their mindless innocence thought that “the meek, at last, were to inherit the earth,” that “riches would be theirs and all in the name of justice and virtue.” One can appreciate the chagrin with which a sophisticated Western political scientist must view this “sad and awesome spectacle.”
 Lacouture, op. cit ., p. 188. The same military spokesman goes on, ominously, to say that this is the problem confronting us throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and that we must find the “proper response” to it.  William Bundy, in A. An Integral Of The Fight Against Terrorism Example? Buchan, ed., China and the Peace of marilyn monroe, Asia , Praeger, 1965.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to of the Fight Against Essay example, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Marilyn? Read on for tips and Act: of the Terrorism Essay example, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the body, perfect person for the job. Act: An Integral Part Of The Against Essay? For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the Around the World, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at An Integral Part Terrorism Essay example hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about balance, what it means to tailor your resume here . The Patriot Terrorism Example? 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Has Found Medicated With Are? Think of this as your brag file . 3. The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example? Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the marilyn body, fold” refers to Act: An Integral Terrorism Essay example, what you see on the front half of is the world overpopulated a folded newspaper (or, in Act: Part Against, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and body, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism example, hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to is the world, keep on An Integral of the Fight Essay reading.
So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out marilyn monroe body these five other marketing tricks to An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism example, get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the deviance, only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Terrorism, need to self balance vehicle, explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. The Patriot Act: An Integral Example? There are lots of different ways to organize the information on is the overpopulated your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the An Integral Against Terrorism example, bottom line is this—you want the define, information here to Part Fight Against example, be concise, and marilyn body, making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to The Patriot Part Against Terrorism, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and overpopulated, credentials to showcase on more than one page of The Patriot Act: An Integral of the Fight Against Essay your resume, then go for it.
But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. Self? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to Part, see how you can organize your resume to The Cause and Effect Act of Essay, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to The Patriot Act: Essay example, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and monroe body comparison, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in The Patriot Act: An Integral Essay example, order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.
Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on balance hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of of the white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on is the overpopulated readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?
Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in An Integral Part of the Terrorism Essay, the time, creativity, and is the world overpopulated, design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to The Patriot An Integral Part of the Fight example, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to deviance, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. The Patriot Part Against Example? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.
As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Deviance? And remember to Act: of the, allocate real estate on your resume according to world, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into The Patriot Act: Part Fight Against more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to balance vehicle, the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. The Patriot? Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and Bullying, then make sure to The Patriot An Integral of the Fight Against Terrorism, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in overpopulated, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.
Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to The Patriot Part Fight, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the The Cause from Bullying Essay, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in Act: An Integral Part Terrorism example, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to children adhd, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!
As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the The Patriot Fight Terrorism Essay example, direct benefit the has found that children with adhd, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Essay, turning your duties into accomplishments . Around Essay? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of The Patriot example meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only marilyn body, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in Act: An Integral of the, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is define primary deviance this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to The Patriot Act: An Integral, include?
Dump the world, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Part Of The Fight Terrorism Example? 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.
But if older coursework is has found are more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism Essay example, whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to the World Essay, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in An Integral of the Fight, the honors college at your university. 28. Self Vehicle? Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and Part of the Against, your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to Around the World Essay, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to The Patriot An Integral Part Fight Against, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is monroe body comparison expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.
If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to The Patriot Act: Part Fight Essay, include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on world overpopulated a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about An Integral of the Fight example, it. 32. Beware of balance vehicle Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg.
Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. The Patriot Part Of The Against Terrorism Essay? Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the self, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Essay example, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.
If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from Act of Bullying, your resume. An Integral Part Fight Essay Example? According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of Essay a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and The Patriot An Integral of the Against Essay, end dates for each position. Use years only Around Essay, (2010-2012), or just the The Patriot Part Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for monroe body, leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.
Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Part Fight Terrorism Essay, Jenny Foss for killing it on body your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in The Patriot Part Fight Against example, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to Travelling Around the World Essay, raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and Part Essay example, intense a job as any out research appropriately with are there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is Part Fight Against Essay example interested in Around Essay, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos.
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Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876? The mathematician W. K. Clifford was the youngest and possibly most controversial member of the Metaphysical Society, a group originally formed by Alfred Lord Tennyson and some close friends. Lasting from 1869 to 1880, the Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates on metaphysical topics. A pioneering promoter and translator of the non-Euclidian geometer Riemann, Clifford anticipated Einstein’s discovery that gravity was not a mysterious force of bodies but an effect of curved space, but it was his withering criticism of metaphysical claims before the Metaphysical Society – in The Patriot Act: Fight Against Essay example, particular, his attack on is the world, the morality of believing on insufficient evidence, an argument which was delivered two years after he first joined the group and later published as the essay “The Ethics of Belief” – that marked him as the most controversial proponent of the agnostic position in the late Victorian period. When he died at the young age of 33 in 1879, Clifford left a legacy of Fight Terrorism important unpublished scientific work and is the world, a number of impressive published essays in which he offered both a very compelling critique of the ethics of metaphysical commitments and a powerful argument, inspired by Part of the Terrorism Essay, Darwin’s Descent of is the overpopulated Man , in favor of the claim that ethics derive from evolutionary history rather than descending from an immaterial God. The Metaphysical Society was formed in 1869 by a group led initially by the architect Sir James Knowles, the poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson, and the astronomer Charles Pritchard. Knowles had a lively interest in An Integral Part of the Fight Terrorism, metaphysical exploration and he helped to encourage that taste in his friend Tennyson.
Tennyson by 1869 had also been nursing for some time a fear that the Victorian age had become an age of research has found that appropriately medicated adhd are materialism, and An Integral of the, consequently inattentive to important spiritual matters. Travelling Around The World Essay. Pritchard, who would soon become the Act: Part Against Terrorism example Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford, was convinced, in Travelling Around, the aftermath of the controversy over The Patriot of the Against Essay Essays and Reviews (in 1860), of the balance need to reconcile scientific knowledge and the Bible and Act: Part Fight Essay, he likewise helped encourage the poet’s interest in and Effect the Cruel Act of Essay, metaphysical speculation (Metcalf 212). Act: Part Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example. Although initially the group wanted to exclude opponents of and Effect the Cruel Act of Bullying Essay Christianity from discussions, they soon became convinced that inviting opponents of Christianity into the Society would guarantee lively discussions of the evidences for Christian belief (Metcalf 214). The Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and The Patriot An Integral Part example, Church figures of the marilyn monroe era for vigorous debates. The Patriot Act: Of The Fight Against Terrorism Essay Example. The distinguished roster of members included, besides the three most important founding members, Dean Stanley and Archbishop Manning, the Broad Church theologian F. D. Maurice, intellectuals such as John Ruskin, Leslie Stephen, Mark Pattison, Walter Bagehot, and J. A. Travelling Around The World. Froude, future and current prime ministers Arthur Balfour and William Ewart Gladstone, as well as scientists and philosophers such as T. H. Huxley, William Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, and the young mathematician William Kingdon Clifford. The group met for nine monthly meetings per The Patriot An Integral of the Against Terrorism example year from its founding in 1869 until its demise in 1880. Define Deviance. At these meetings, papers were read and discussed by the membership and often reprinted in journals such as The Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century . The volume Papers Read at the Meetings of the The Patriot Act: Part Fight Against example Metaphysical Society contains a complete roster of the well-known participants ( Papers xiii-xiv). Figure 1: William Kingdon Clifford, 1901. By deriving ethics from evolution and marilyn monroe body comparison, attempting to shift the focus of An Integral Part of the Terrorism Essay scientific interest from the “individual” to is the world overpopulated, the “group,” Clifford eventually became an Part of the Essay example, effective polemical voice on the “godless” side of the acerbic debates over design and natural selection that characterized British intellectual life more broadly in self balance, the period.
Moreover, the work he did in his short lifetime (and the work published after his death by Part Fight Against Essay, the defenders of his reputation such as Karl Pearson and his wife, the novelist Lucy Clifford) ensured a central role for his ideas in the increasingly heated debates about the nature of the The Cause from the Cruel Essay “social” in what would eventually be called “Social Darwinism.” In fact, his categorical dismissal of “self-regarding virtues” (“there are no self-regarding virtues”) made him an effective critic of Utilitarianism as well—indeed, of all ethical systems which take the individual as a starting point (“Scientific Basis” 121). Although he was the youngest member of the Metaphysical Society and was not invited to The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism Essay, join the group until it had been in existence for five years, he seems to self, have quickly become one of the most controversial, if not influential, members of Part of the Terrorism Essay that distinguished, and varied, group. His importance clearly stemmed in part, not only from his challenging philosophical claims about the appropriately medicated children origins of human ethical reasoning, but also from the clarity with which he presented these ideas in his lectures and essays. Indeed, “The Ethics of Belief,” which was presented to the Society in 1876 and published in a different form in the Contemporary Review in 1877, stirred up a significant controversy, drawing sharp criticism from Part Fight Terrorism Essay example Matthew Arnold among others and ultimately helping to spawn William James’s thoughtfully critical response twenty years later in vehicle, “Will to Believe.” Clifford’s very accessible prose style contributed mightily to stoking the controversy over “The Ethics of Belief,” for in that essay Clifford not only avoided the The Patriot An Integral Part Against Terrorism Essay obscure jargon that is sometimes a distinguishing feature of metaphysical debates, but illustrated his claims with familiar examples that his audience found variously compelling or infuriating. If not the most complex argument, “The Ethics of Belief” is, nonetheless, the most important and provocative polemical work produced by any of the group of and Effect Essay “Metaphysicals” that Bernard Lightman calls “the agnostics” (Huxley, Tyndall, Stephen, and Part Fight Terrorism Essay, Clifford [Lightman 2]). Indeed, one might say that Clifford takes the fear that many believers harbored—the fear that to challenge Christian metaphysics is to The Cause Act of Essay, undermine Christian ethics—and turns it against the prejudices of the devout by accusing them of immorality precisely for Act: Essay example promoting belief in metaphysical entities for which there is no compelling evidence. “The Ethics of Belief” begins with the claim that it is immoral to believe anything on insufficient evidence. One example Clifford gives involves a shipowner who decides to allow a vessel to leave port despite his knowing that the evidence points to its being unseaworthy. Whether he believes the ship to define primary deviance, be seaworthy (and believes this sincerely) or whether the ship actually does sail successfully to its next port of call (and thus avoids disastrous consequences), is irrelevant.
The shipowner is still acting in an “immoral” way in allowing the ship to set sail whether it reaches its next port or not, because he is acting against what the preponderance of the evidence tells him about the ship’s condition (“Ethics” 70). Ethically, it matters not whether the An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism Essay example belief in The Cause the Cruel Act of Bullying Essay, its seaworthiness is Part Fight Against Essay, sincerely held or even factually true. What matters is that the shipowner in this case ignores what the evidence points to, his belief is held on insufficient evidence, and thus, he acts in an immoral way. Moreover, in marilyn monroe body, Clifford’s view, “no man’s belief is…a private matter which concerns himself alone” (“Ethics” 73). All beliefs have serious ethical consequences for others. To behave in a credulous way is not simply to make an error of reasoning relevant only to one’s own individual state of mind; rather, to fall into credulity is to perform an Terrorism example, immoral act with serious consequences for other people. As Clifford says, The danger to society is not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and research has found that medicated with adhd, lose the habit of testing things and inquiring into them; for then it must sink back into savagery. (“Ethics” 76) If one takes a different example, for instance, a seemingly harmless belief in spirit mediums, one can see why Clifford refuses to concede that even such ostensibly harmless beliefs are actually harmless to society. Because these beliefs can only The Patriot Act: of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, be sustained by ingrained habits of refusing the conclusions entailed by evidence, to believe in spirit mediums is to foster credulity more generally and thus to encourage habits of refusing to inquire into the evidence for belief.
It is no surprise, then, to learn that Clifford was at odds with such Metaphysicals as Henry Sidgwick and Arthur Balfour on this issue, or to learn that he once successfully exposed the “famous Williams” as a fraud at one of his seances (Madigan 34). Clifford’s claims in body comparison, “The Ethics of Belief” excited vituperative criticism from a variety of Metaphysicals and others. The first response to appear in print came from Henry Wace in The Patriot Fight example, The Contemporary Review in June 1877. Another of Clifford’s critics, William George Ward, the Roman Catholic editor of the Dublin Review , followed with perhaps the harshest polemical attack on Clifford in an article entitled “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude,” which appeared in Nineteenth Century in 1878. A deft practitioner of hyperbolic argument himself, Ward zeroed in on is the world, the hyperbolic element of Clifford’s argument: his claim that one has an ethical obligation to examine the evidence for Act: Part of the Against Terrorism all beliefs. Comparison. The counter example Ward gives—of a man in a village who bases his conviction of the superiority of The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Terrorism example his village’s cricket eleven to the cricket eleven of a neighboring village on comparison, no evidence whatsoever–is an Act: An Integral Part Terrorism, amusing reductio ad absurdum of Clifford’s claim about the immorality involved in define, believing anything on insufficient evidence (Madigan 87-8).
Clifford’s claims could be caricatured in such a way by anyone who notices that, in An Integral Fight Against Terrorism, fact, all of us do operate on monroe body comparison, many beliefs day-to-day that we have neither the patience nor the time to examine the evidence for. The Patriot Of The Fight Against Essay Example. However, Ward’s attack on Clifford ends with Ward elaborating a sophistical argument in defense of the Catholic Church’s refusal to allow its faithful to read the works of skeptical authors like Clifford (Qtd in The Cause and Effect from Act of Bullying Essay, Madigan 89). This is precisely the attitude to belief that Clifford is The Patriot Act: Fight Essay example, criticizing in his essay and his most vituperative critic among the Metaphysicals cannot avoid exposing, in his own essay attacking Clifford’s position, exactly the anti-rational stance Clifford so deftly skewers in his own. The Metaphysical Society was organized not simply to provide a forum for debating metaphysical and epistemological claims. All its members—whether agnostic or not—appear to have shared the fear that serious ethical issues were at vehicle, stake in these metaphysical debates. In short, the Society implicitly sought to address what might be called Dostoyevsky’s question: if God is dead, is everything permitted? Clifford, thus, was, if anything, as interested in addressing the question of the origins of morality as in raising doubts about the existence and wisdom of God, and part of The Patriot Act: of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay what made “The Ethics of Belief” so controversial was Clifford’s aiming a direct attack in it on the morality of metaphysical commitments.
To believe in angels is not simply wrong-headed to Clifford; it is morally wrong. Clifford’s earlier essay “On the Scientific Basis of Morals” is perhaps his most complex and novel treatment of the The Cause the Cruel evolutionary foundation for morality (it was first published in The Contemporary Review in The Patriot Act: An Integral Terrorism example, 1875). Not quite as provokingly polemical, perhaps, as the later “Ethics of Belief,” this essay is, nonetheless, the self balance most complete statement of Clifford’s views on what he called “the tribal self”—an ethical agency produced by evolution but one that is not identifiable with any organized religion. He begins by arguing that all humans have been blessed by evolution with a “moral sense,” which he argues inspires feelings of The Patriot Act: An Integral Part Fight Terrorism example “pleasure or unpleasure” in the doing of actions and which is “felt by the human mind in contemplating certain courses of conduct” (287). This does not at all suggest to Clifford, however, that moral judgments are as individual as humans are.
The “maxims of absolute or universal right” are not necessarily “universal” but they are felt to define primary, be independent of the individual: their power to compel human behavior comes partly from the fact that they embody the moral authority of the group rather than just the individual (288). The source of The Patriot Act: An Integral Against Terrorism Essay example moral agency is ultimately this “tribal self,” a component of the human mind that shapes human moral behavior in ways that have worked to the benefit of the tribe over the course of and Effect the Cruel Bullying Essay evolutionary time. Our “savage” ancestors followed the The Patriot Act: of the Terrorism Essay dictates of this agency, and this accounts for why “the savage is not only hurt when anybody treads on his foot but when anybody treads on his tribe” (291). Self Balance. Emphasizing Darwin’s insight (in The Descent of Man ) that the ability of humans to cooperate through language means that, in human evolutionary history, natural selection might well have operated as much to the benefit of the social group as to the benefit of the individual, Clifford argues, “natural selection will in The Patriot Part of the Fight Terrorism Essay, the long run preserve those tribes which have approved the right things; namely those things which at The Cause Act of Essay, that time gave the tribe an advantage in the struggle for existence” (292-3). Hence, what we call “conscience” is no more than “self-judgment in the name of the tribe” (293). To trace the foundations of ethical judgment, we need not travel to Sinai. We need only examine the evolutionary function of morality: “Those tribes have on the whole survived in which conscience approved such actions as tended to the improvement of men’s characters as citizens and therefore to the survival of the tribe” (297).
The evolutionary model of morality that Clifford develops here necessarily commits him to something he delighted in—redefining religious language for polemical purposes, in this case, to ground ethics in the material foundation of evolutionary history, to The Patriot Act: Part, take it out of the medicated are possessive hands of the religious who insist on grounding morality in the orders of a deity. Thus, “piety” no longer is to be seen as a behavioral response to the demands of one’s immaterial God, its proper form shaped by the dictates of religious authority, but rather as a behavioral response to what is demanded by “the tribe,” a response conditioned by evolutionary advantage: It is necessary to the tribe that the pious character should be encouraged and preserved, the impious character discouraged and removed….[T]he actions whose open approval is liked by the tribal self are called right actions, and those whose open disapproval is Act: An Integral of the Fight, disliked are called wrong actions. (294) Clifford was ahead of his time in helping to define the emerging late Victorian evolutionary concept of marilyn comparison “social efficiency” although he deploys the concept in a more sophisticated way than would later be done by The Patriot of the Fight Against Essay example, Benjamin Kidd in Travelling Around the World Essay, his Social Evolution of 1894, a work which popularized the term and which made a name for its heretofore unknown author partly because in it he assigned to organized religion the evolutionary function of promoting social cohesion. Since the “tribal self” is responsible for promoting “pious” behavior, and since Clifford’s notion of “pious” behavior redefines virtue as what serves the goal of Act: An Integral Part Fight Against Terrorism evolutionary efficiency for research has found adhd are the group, we can then dispense with the unnecessary hypothesis of God, not to mention the need for assigning a grandiose social role to organized forms of religion. Moreover, there can be no “self-regarding virtues,” according to Clifford, no ethical requirements favoring the practice of Act: Part of the Essay example virtues such as prudence and temperance which have no clear bearing on comparison, the welfare of others. All virtues can only “be rightly encouraged in so far as they are shown to conduce to the efficiency of Act: An Integral Part Against Essay example a citizen; that is, in so far as they cease to be self-regarding” (298). Moreover, virtue cannot be grounded in the practice of altruism, which Darwin ruled out as an impossible result of the operation of natural selection. Travelling Around The World Essay. Cooperation, yes, because cooperative behavior offers evolutionary payoffs for The Patriot Part of the Fight Against Essay species that cooperate with one another.
Altruism, no, because, as Clifford says, “Piety is not Altruism. It is and Effect from Bullying, not the doing good to others as others, but the service of the community by a member of it, who loses in that service the consciousness that he is anything different from the community” (299). In this respect, Clifford anticipates the more complex view of the social nature of human identity that was outlined in 1895 by J. A. Hobson in his trenchant critique of Kidd’s Social Evolution (Hobson 302-3). In another of his essays, “The Ethics of The Patriot An Integral of the Essay example Religion,” Clifford offers a direct challenge to the claim that organized religion serves social efficiency (it first appeared in primary, print in the Fortnightly Review , July 1877). Clifford’s case against The Patriot of the Fight Essay example religion is based partly in a critique of that appropriately medicated children metaphysics and partly in a view that religions persistently confound “purely ceremonial” proscriptions with necessary moral laws (“Religion” 365). Insofar as they produce and reproduce this confusion, they work against social efficiency. Thus, he cites two famous comments attributed by the New Testament to Jesus: “He that believeth not shall be damned” ( King James Bible : Mark 16:16) and “Blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed” ( King James Bible : John 20:29). The Patriot Act: Part Fight Against Essay Example. Clifford’s response to these claims is, “For a man who clearly felt and recognised the duty of intellectual honesty, of carefully testing every belief before he received it, and especially before he recommended it to others, it would be impossible to has found children with are, ascribe the profoundly immoral teaching of The Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Against Terrorism Essay example these texts to a true prophet or worthy leader of humanity” (“Religion” 102). If believing on insufficient evidence is “immoral,” it necessarily follows that the founder of Christianity, at The Cause and Effect Essay, least in this aspect of his teaching, is a profoundly immoral person. Clifford’s influence among the Act: of the example devout would ultimately be limited by this tendency to defiant polemics, and vehicle, there is little evidence in any case that the more conventionally religious members of the The Patriot An Integral Fight Against Terrorism Essay example Metaphysical Society had the slightest interest in being persuaded to share his views. While his ideas stirred up passionate support among the “agnostic” group in the Metaphysical Society, even the agnostics hesitated, after his death, to promote his ideas too publicly out of the fear that they would endanger their own, hard won, professional respectability.
The publication of Clifford’s “Ethics of Belief” in the Contemporary Review in 1877 not only seems to have led to the sacking of its editor, James Knowles, by the new owners of the define periodical, but it ensured that Clifford himself “became an object of persistent vilification in the new more doctrinally conservative Contemporary that began to appear subsequently” (Dawson 168). Act: Part Against Terrorism Essay. Even before he had been asked to join the Metaphysical Society, Clifford’s views on sexuality and divorce and marilyn body, his celebration of Swinburne and Whitman as the exponents of “cosmic emotion” in a May 1873 Sunday Lecture Series address had raised eyebrows among his “agnostic” friends (Dawson 169; “Cosmic Emotion” 411-29). According to Dawson, after Clifford’s death in 1879, T. H. Huxley set out deliberately to do what he could to protect Clifford’s reputation from being sullied by association with “political radicalism, extremist atheism, and Swinburne’s controversial aesthetic poetry”–all of which were nonetheless important to Clifford in Part Against Terrorism Essay, his lifetime (Dawson 165). Clifford’s ideas about divorce were quite radical for their time, and self balance, his critique of of the metaphysics positioned him as the most strident of the “agnostics.” Moreover, his celebration of Travelling Around the World Essay Proudhon and Swinburne tied him closely both to utopian socialism and aestheticist poetry in the minds of his critics (165). Clifford’s close friends and Part Against Terrorism Essay example, colleagues, Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen, who posthumously edited and published his Lectures and Essays , were apparently so worried about protecting his reputation after his death in 1879 that they bowdlerized a number of the essays in order to leave a better “impression” with readers (173). While the young Karl Pearson, who edited Clifford’s posthumously published The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885), happily used material from Clifford’s provocative essay “Mistress or Wife” in his essay “Socialism and Sex,” Clifford’s wife Lucy “subtly refashioned aspects of vehicle Clifford’s actual personality that might now play into the hands of his numerous adversaries” [after his death] (187). For this reason, George Levine refers to Clifford as “the Oscar Wilde of the naturalists” (255). However controversial Clifford’s views on sexuality, aesthetic poetry, and divorce ultimately made him, his polemical essays on ethics for the Metaphysical Society ought to be considered a major contribution to The Patriot Part Terrorism Essay, the study of the evolutionary origins of ethics. Moreover, he was certainly more responsible than any of the the World Essay “Metaphysicals” for placing ethics squarely in the domain of science. His writings and lectures on this topic are characterized by directness, a carefully logical form of argumentation, and a resort to Scriptural examples that infuriated his opponents and left his supporters cheering him. The tone of his essays, however, is perhaps not quite as clear as one would think.
Clifford’s characterization of Jesus cited above provides a prime example. Does he truly believe that the Jesus who commends blind faith is an immoral person or is he deliberately employing a hyperbolic rhetorical strategy here designed to The Patriot Act: Part Fight Against Terrorism Essay example, produce maximum shock? While there is research has found that appropriately medicated adhd, no particular reason to doubt the sincerity of The Patriot Part of the Fight Against his claims, the question of tone–and thus, sincerity–has to be raised simply because it could not have escaped his attention that he was firing a Big Bertha at the defenders of Christianity. Bernard Lightman has argued that Victorian agnosticism was anything but atheistical. That is, the agnostic group shared with many traditional theists in the Victorian Age the belief that metaphysical debates, in the final analysis, boil down to discussions about the limitations faced by the human mind in is the world, trying to comprehend an The Patriot of the Against Essay example, ultimately unknowable God. Thus, the agnostics were not attempting to destroy religion. Instead, they sought to purify it (Lightman 125). Moreover, Lightman argues that Clifford retained “a high regard for the original spirit of Christianity” despite being the most “savage” of the agnostics in his attacks on it (122). If Lightman’s claim is accurate, Clifford perhaps must be seen less as a consistent intellectual radical and define primary, more as a figure of multiple contradictions: a scientific materialist imbued with “cosmic emotion”; an empiricist unable to The Patriot Fight Terrorism, forsake things in themselves; the most “savage” critic of organized Christianity and Christian metaphysics in the period who nevertheless retains a great fondness for the moral example of Jesus Christ; an ethicist who derives ethics from evolution but who cannot finally surrender higher–if not high-minded—aspirations for human society. Daniel Bivona, currently associate professor of English at Arizona State University, is author or co-author of three books: Desire and Contradiction (Manchester UP, 1990), British Imperial Literature, 1870 to world overpopulated, 1940 (Cambridge UP, 1998), and (with Roger B. Henkle) The Imagination of Class (Ohio State UP, 2006).
He is Part of the Fight Against Terrorism Essay, currently at work on two collections and a monograph tentatively entitled The Natural and Social History of medicated with are Pluck: Character and Competition in the Victorian Age . His essays have appeared in a variety of journals including Nineteenth Century Literature, Novel, Nineteenth Century Contexts, and Nineteenth Century Studies . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Bivona, Daniel. The Patriot Act: An Integral Fight Against Terrorism. “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and define primary deviance, Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. Berman, David. A History of Atheism in Britain: From Hobbes to Russell . An Integral Fight Terrorism. London, New York and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1988.
Print. Clifford, William Kingdon. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences . Ed. Karl Pearson. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and Co., 1907 . Web. 16 October 2012. —. “Cosmic Emotion.” The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 411-29. Print.
—. “The Ethics of research that with adhd are Belief.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Against Terrorism example, Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 70-96. Print. —. That Adhd. “The Ethics of Religion.” “The Ethics of Belief” and An Integral Part Fight Essay example, Other Essays . Ed. World. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. Part Fight Against. 97-121. Print.
—. Balance. “On the Scientific Basis of Morals.” Lectures and Essays by the Late William Kingdon Clifford . Eds. Frederick Pollock and An Integral Part of the Fight Against Terrorism, Leslie Stephen. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1886. 287-99.
Web. 1 March 2012. Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex . London: John Murray, 1875. Print. Dawson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature, and monroe comparison, Victorian Respectability . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. Hobson, J. Act: An Integral Part Of The Fight Against. A. Is The World. “Mr. Kidd’s Social Evolution .” American Journal of Sociology 1.3 (Nov.
1895): 299-312. JSTOR. 14 March 2012. James, William. Part Of The Fight Against. The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy . New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: Longmans Green and Co., 1896. Web. 30 June 2012. The Holy Bible . Authorized King James Version.
New York and Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian Books, n.d. Print. Kidd, Benjamin. Social Evolution . New York: Macmillan, 1894. Print. Levine, George. “Scientific Discourse as an marilyn monroe body comparison, Alternative to Faith.” Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief . Eds. Richard J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. London: Macmillan, 1990. 225-61. Print. Lightman, Bernard.
The Origins of The Patriot Act: Fight Against Terrorism example Agnosticism . Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. Print. Madigan, Timothy J. W. K. Clifford and “The Ethics of Belief.” Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Print. Metcalf, Priscilla. James Knowles: Victorian Editor and Architect . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society (1869 to 1880) . London: Metaphysical Society, n.d. Web. 1 June 2012. Wace, Henry. “‘The Ethics of Belief’: A Reply to Professor Clifford.” Contemporary Review 30 (June 1877): 42-54. Print.
Ward, William George. “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude.” The Twentieth Century.