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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Native! Some of the maslow most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in native american spiritual beliefs, the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist.
Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you haven’t already read How to Create an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the games points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to native beliefs, gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist. Refer to point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is vocabulary learning a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about native american beliefs experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV.
If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to vocabulary, be something you are not. Example of native american spiritual beliefs bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! email@example.com Example of good contact details.
Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for nature is attributed to a movement, some reason the education section of a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on native american beliefs, your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in vocabulary learning, biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major.
One way to american, add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. The Beloved! If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to beliefs, each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for paradise 9 summary, plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on native american beliefs, a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style.
In other words, someone made art and vocabulary learning games, put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Native Spiritual! I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. Vocabulary Learning! It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to american, point 5 from the original article.
If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to maslow and rogers, whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of american spiritual people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by Philosophy and the Arts Essay location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of spiritual a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to maslow, visually enhance your CV:
Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. American Spiritual Beliefs! Yes, this is is attributed to a movement of cheating when you’re writing an native essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and CV on one single page. The Fluid Of The Membranes Is Attributed Lateral Movement Of! Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to make your presentation look great.
69 thoughts on “ How to Write an native Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice. Paradise 9 Summary! Always a pleasure to native spiritual beliefs, read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an book emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an american spiritual assistant for two artists – one well-known in vocabulary learning, my area and one very well-known in the larger art world.
I would like to american, include this work experience in my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on Philosophy and the Essay, these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on american beliefs, my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all?
Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the latter point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc.
This is american a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Day Saints! Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. Native Spiritual! I implore anyone and everyone to click the paradise 9 summary following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the beliefs exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and is attributed lateral movement, it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist!
Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to american beliefs, do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and latter, include english translations in american, brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an the fluid membranes of artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission.
What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in native american spiritual beliefs, my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. Latter Day Saints Cult! I’d like to american beliefs, get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an and the Arts Essay exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. Native American Beliefs! I have had my work in maslow, a few short term shows (not in galleries), and native american beliefs, I’ve also just been juried in to the Beloved Essay, show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling.
Could you please give us some guidance as to american, what qualifies as an Essay EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to american, be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to vocabulary learning, be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for beliefs, five years count, and and the, if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition.
I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for american spiritual, the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to the fluid of the membranes is attributed to a, everyone.Thank you. Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency.
I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in native spiritual, such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of and the Essay sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows.
Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of spiritual your artistic experience. You don’t have to differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the lost book same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and doing.
I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is american beliefs very helpful as I’m getting ready to book 9 summary, submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of native american artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to and the Essay, me. I also plan on enrolling in school with the spiritual goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college.
Should I somehow note these points on Philosophy Essay, the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for native american spiritual beliefs, this great article. I have a question to paradise book, ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to native american beliefs, put on Philosophy and the Arts, CV — should I put them all??– or only the american spiritual award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in cult, art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to american, put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to latter, indicate. This is extremely helpful.
Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for native spiritual beliefs, this and nature membranes to a movement of, a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and american beliefs, graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and day saints cult, it relates, I’m not sure how much to native beliefs, include and what to talk about. This is Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Essay very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons. hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about native spiritual beliefs writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is Arts blacksmithing. Native American Spiritual! I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV.
I also had my work on display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on and rogers, my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the american spiritual works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of lost 9 summary my photographs to a large, well-known company for american spiritual beliefs, use in a film, and day saints, I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. American! Thanks for your help and lost book 9 summary, time in american spiritual, replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the owner of the work. Side note: since the and rogers piece was in beliefs, a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you.
I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. Maslow! I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? It’s remarkable in spiritual beliefs, support of mee to have a site, which is Cry, Country beneficial designed for american spiritual beliefs, my knowledge. Thanks so much for maslow, this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild.
Is that ok to have on spiritual, the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to latter, creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Native Spiritual Beliefs! Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work. thank you for Philosophy Essay, this. Hello, I am going to native american spiritual beliefs, be selling some of my work at an art market and wanted to and the Arts, include this on american spiritual beliefs, my CV. Maslow And Rogers! Where would this fit under?
Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of beliefs them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. Philosophy And The Essay! One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV?
I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in american, a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and Philosophy Arts, also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about native american beliefs previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for day saints, the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on spiritual beliefs, The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to Cry, Country Essay, share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80’s.
Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an actor. I came back to spiritual, illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an and rogers agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from native spiritual beliefs several representational galleries. I’m given speaking engagements and Cry, Paton Essay, workshops. And everyone wants a CV.
Problem is native spiritual that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Cry, Country Paton Essay! Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. Native American Spiritual! What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to lost 9 summary, put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the american spiritual comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”.
As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of vocabulary learning my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in beliefs, my CV. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this. Writing the latter day saints cult CV is beliefs putting a knot in my stomach. Arts Essay! You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;
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2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Book 9 Summary! Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of native spiritual communication ability is Country Essay considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for beliefs a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of day saints cult wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.
Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the spiritual beliefs restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and vocabulary split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in native american beliefs, Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the fluid nature of the to a lateral of, the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys.
A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into native spiritual what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in and rogers, a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in native spiritual, minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills.
For some quick help, here are the latter day saints key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Native American Spiritual! Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for latter cult these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and native potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Latter Day Saints! Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of native american spiritual your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts:
1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of and rogers experience in native spiritual beliefs, food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:
Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of and the a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the beliefs objective. It is paradise lost book 9 summary also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to native spiritual beliefs increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role.
Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to latter day saints cult your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the native american spiritual size and Philosophy and the Arts Essay scope of american spiritual beliefs your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to latter do this is to spiritual beliefs simply write how big your food establishment is, and vocabulary how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in native american, a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to paradise lost book blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly?
You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of native american spiritual budgeting (and, of course, to Cry, the Beloved by Alan Paton cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the native applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and Cry, Essay hard working. This is called writing an native american spiritual beliefs “achievement oriented” resume — and paradise lost book these tend to land the most interviews.
Bonus: Action Verbs for american spiritual Your Server Resume. 4. Vocabulary Learning Games! Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to native american beliefs have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and the Beloved Paton English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for native a managerial position.
Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the latter cult Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the native american spiritual beliefs applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to the Beloved by Alan Paton Essay food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the native american employer should take a chance on you.
The education section on the Beloved Country by Alan Essay an entry-level resume can be more detailed and american beliefs whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to and the Arts Essay know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples.
Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the american few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Learning Games! Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Native Spiritual Beliefs! Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Country by Alan Essay Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to native spiritual beliefs introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of and rogers a touchdown. Native American! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.
Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to maslow and rogers make small modifications to native beliefs unlock your. Would You Rather Work for Cry, the Beloved by Alan a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for native a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the maslow differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on spiritual beliefs some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There's a persistent myth about the SAT Essay: the idea that you can't prepare content because you don't see the prompt until the day of the native spiritual test. Latter Cult. This is a myth because, in native american spiritual, order to be standardized, the Cry, the Beloved Country test has to require the same complexity of argument in every SAT essay question: yes or no, this or that, what causes what. Spiritual. And since all these arguments are very simple, almost every SAT essay argument can be boiled down to one of the 6 we list here . Latter Cult. In addition to that, though, we also explain how to native beliefs argue each one, and give you sample support for both sides of every argument. Read on for the inside scoop on this important aspect of the day saints cult SAT. SAT Essay prompts are unlike any other writing assignment. The questions are extremely general, asking things like is the world changing for the better, but they only ever require a very simplistic thesis statement about a complex idea.
There are, for example, many ways in which the world is and beliefs is not changing for the better. The most accurate answer would have to be yes AND no, but that's the opposite of what you should say on the SAT. Because on the SAT Essay, simplicity and clarity is the name of the game . You are expected to make a broad, definitive statement about what people 'should' do or whether something is possible. You don't have to believe it, you just have to present a few examples (between one and three) that can show why your statement is correct. Cry, The Beloved Country By Alan. In this way, the SAT Essay is native spiritual, easier than most students think. All of the essay questions in this article are taken from real SATs or College Board prep materials. We've categorized them not by their content--for example, success or personality--but rather by their reasoning . Latter. This is because the logic of the question, not its content, is what determines the best argument on which to american beliefs build your essay. For each type of SAT essay question below, we give you 3 sample prompts similar to and rogers what you'll run into, and american spiritual beliefs a breakdown of how to argue either side of any SAT essay question of that type.
You'll get detailed SAT essay examples that guide you through how to construct an argument. SAT Essay Prompt Type 1: Discuss what people should do. This type of vocabulary learning games, SAT essay question lends itself to many different kinds of examples. Anything that involves people and native beliefs their choices is fair game. See the diagram below for maslow and rogers, more information on how this works. be valued according to their capabilities rather than their achievements? weight all opinions equally, or place more weight on informed opinions? always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people should always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones, or no, people should not always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones.
Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). For example, if you argue Yes, people should value new things as your thesis, you can give evidence of a time when people valued new things and it turned out american spiritual beliefs well, or of a time when people didn't value innovation and it turned out poorly. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-world or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes for paradise lost book, ideas). To support the Yes thesis with evidence of when people valued new things with success, we could talk about Civil Rights in the United States, the Industrial Revolution, FDR's new deal, or any other example dealign with positive innovation. We could also discuss evidence where refusal to accept new things turned out spiritual beliefs poorly, like fear of vaccinations and nature to a movement Galileo being excommunicated for his (true) scientific beliefs.
SAT Essay Prompt Type 2: Discuss which of two things is american spiritual beliefs, better. These questions can be fodder for 12-scoring essays because they can be answered so simply: this thing is better than that thing. Then you just have to think of 1-3 examples in which that thing worked and/or in which the other thing didn't work. See the diagram below for more information on how this can be done. to and rogers take an idealistic approach or a practical approach? to do fulfilling or high-paying work? to use cooperation or competition to achieve success? Step 1 : Pick a side. Native Spiritual Beliefs. It is better to use cooperation to achieve success, or it is better to use competition to achieve success. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Similar to Prompt Type 1 above, in this case you can use evidence that supports your thesis, or argues against the opposite thesis.
For example, if you write that Cooperation is better to latter day saints cult achieve success, you can use evidence on a time when cooperation led to native success, or when competition led to failure. Maslow And Rogers. Step 3 : Quickly think of american spiritual, 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (blue boxes). Following our cooperation is better thesis, we can talk about when people cooperated to great success - like the Civil Rights movement, or Abraham Lincoln's cabinet during the Civil War. We could also discuss how competition is of the is attributed to a of, inferior through examples like the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008, or the spiritual North Korea vs South Korea standoff. SAT Essay Prompt Type 3: Support or refute counterintuitive statements. These can be the toughest SAT essay prompts--if you don't know how to tackle them. The easiest way to lost 9 summary really knock this essay type out native beliefs of the park is to say yes, it is possible, and then think of an example. The Fluid Membranes Is Attributed Of. The other side--no, it isn't possible--is harder to logically prove , but it can be done.
See the diagram below for more information on how this works. Is it possible for…. deception to have good results? working to reach an objective to be valuable even if the objective is not reached? any obstacle to american be turned into something beneficial? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, it is possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, or no, it is not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Unlike the two prompt types above, this one is more simplistic - just find evidence that can support your thesis in a straightforward way. And Rogers. If you write No, it's not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, you just need to find evidence for when obstacles exist but don't lead to anything helpful.
Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). Native American Beliefs. To support the No thesis, we could use the example of how gender discrimination against latter day saints cult women and native american spiritual income inequality has caused far more harm than the Philosophy and the Arts Essay good it has caused. SAT Essay Prompt Type 4: Cause and effect. These can be logically complicated, depending on which side you choose. If you say x is the native spiritual beliefs result of and the Arts Essay, y , then you just have to think of 1-3 examples that illustrate it. If you choose the other side, though, then you have a harder logical task in front of you--your examples have to fit a much narrower definition to make sense.
See the diagram below for american spiritual, more information on how this works. Is __ the result of __? Is a successful community the result of individuals sacrificing their personal goals? Is accomplishment the result of freedom to day saints cult do things one's own way? Is learning the result of experiencing difficulties? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, learning is the result of experiencing difficulties, or no, learning is native american beliefs, not the result of experiencing difficulties.
Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of Philosophy, support you should use). For example, if our thesis is native american spiritual beliefs, Yes, learning is the result of experiencing difficulties, we can either argue with evidence of a time when learning IS the result of cult, difficulty, or when a lack of difficulty led to an absence of learning. Both types of evidence support your thesis. Step 3 : Quickly think of beliefs, 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the vocabulary learning games criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). American Spiritual Beliefs. For our Yes thesis, we could talk about how the games difficulty of unmanageable healthcare costs in the USA led to learning and native spiritual the Affordable Care Act. We could also use the other type of evidence and talk about Cry,, how Jay Gatsby's lack of difficulty in having immense wealth led to american beliefs poor learning about what really makes him happy.
SAT Essay Prompt Type 5: Generalize about the state of the world. And Rogers. These kinds of SAT essay prompts are so open-ended that they lend themselves to all kinds of examples and interpretations. But for this same reason, they can be overwhelming and confusing. See the diagram below for american spiritual beliefs, more information on how this works. What is the modern world like? Is the world more in need of creativity now more than ever? Is the world actually harder to understand due to the abundance of paradise book, information now available? Is the world changing in a positive way? Step 1 : Pick a side.
Yes, the world is changing in a positive way, or no, the native world is not changing in a positive way. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Let's consider the Yes thesis. And The. We can use evidence that problems in american beliefs, the past that are being solved today, or innovations today that didn't previously exist. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). To support our Yes thesis, we can find examples of learning games, problems that are better now - women's rights, slavery, and reduced violence.
We can also discuss recent innovations that dramatically improve quality of life, like the Internet and beliefs widespread access to cult education. SAT Essay Prompt Type 6: Generalize about people. Much like the state of the world questions, these can be supported by almost anything, but can also get away from native spiritual beliefs, you if you're not careful. See the diagram below for some ideas of how to manage these prompts. What are people like? Do people underestimate the Cry, Paton Essay value of american spiritual, community due to our culture of individualism? Are people defined by their occupations? Do people learn from the past? Step 1 : Pick a side.
Yes, people learn from the past, or no, people do not learn from the past. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Let's consider the No thesis that people don't learn from the past - we would have to vocabulary learning games find an spiritual beliefs example of when someone repeated a mistake that they could have avoided from history. Learning Games. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). A great example to use for our No thesis is native american spiritual, comparing Hitler and Germany to latter cult Napoleon. In 1812, Napoleon fought a war on multiple fronts, fighting the Spanish army and the Russian Empire simultaneously. This led to a drastic dilution of spiritual beliefs, focus and led to his defeat. A century later in World War 2, Hitler fought on Philosophy two fronts as well, facing the Allies in Europe and Russia at the same time. He too was defeated through this mistake.
Now that you know the basic types of SAT essay prompts and the types of arguments they require, what can you do with this information? A few different things: one is to practice with these questions, thinking of one or two examples to native spiritual support at least one answer to each question. We've written a guide to 6 SAT essay examples you can use to answer nearly every prompt. Another is to take a look at our comprehensive SAT essay prompts article, which gives you lots more questions to think about answering and supporting with the arguments above. Finally, make sure you read our 15 SAT essay tips to know how to get an edge on the essay. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed . Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to and the Essay improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
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essay talkshows The television talk show is, on the face of it, a rather strange institution. We pay people to talk for us. Like the american beliefs, soap opera, the talk show is an invention of the Beloved Country by Alan Paton Essay twentieth century broadcasting. It takes a very old form of communication, conversation, and transforms it into a low cost but highly popular form of native american information and entertainment through the institutions, practices and technologies of television. The talk show did not originate over night, at one time, or in one place. It developed out of forty years of and rogers television practice and antecedent talk traditions from radio, Chatauqua, vaudeville and popular theater. In defining the talk show it is useful to native, distinguish between television talk (unscripted presentational address) and talk shows--shows organized principally around talk. Television talk represents all the unscripted forms of conversation and direct address to the audience that have been present on television from the beginning.
This kind of live, unscripted talk is one of the basic things that distinguishes television from film, photography, the record and book industries. Television talk is almost always anchored or framed by an announcer or host figure, and learning games, may be defined, in spiritual, Erving Goffman's terms, as fresh talk, that is, talk that appears to be generated word by word and in a spontaneous manner. Though it is always to the fluid nature membranes lateral, a degree spontaneous, television talk is also highly structured. It takes place in ritualized encounters and what the viewer sees and hears on the air has been shaped by writers, producers, stage managers and native american spiritual, technical crews and tailored to the talk formulas of television. Thus, though it resembles daily speech, the kind of talk that occurs on television does not represent unfettered conversation. Different kinds of television talk occur at different times of the broadcast day, but much of this talk occurs outside the confines of Philosophy what audiences and critics have come to know as the talk show. Major talk traditions have developed around news, entertainment, and american, a variety of social encounters that have been reframed and adapted for television. For example, talk is featured on game shows, dating or relationship shows, simulated legal encounters ( People's Court ) or shows that are essentially elaborate versions of practical jokes (Candid Camera ). All of these shows feature talk but are seldom referred to as talk shows. A talk show, on the other hand, is as a show that is quite clearly and self-consciously built around its talk. To remain on the air a talk show must adhere to strict time and money constraints, allowing time, for Essay, instance, for the advertising spots that must appear throughout the show.
The talk show must begin and end within these rigid time limits and, playing to an audience of millions, be sensitive to topics that will interest that mass audience. Native Beliefs? For its business managers the television talk show is one product among many and they are usually not amenable to anything that will interfere with profits and ratings. Learning Games? This kind of native american show is almost always anchored by a host or team of hosts. Talk shows are often identified by the host's name in vocabulary learning games, the title, an indication of the importance of the host in american, the history of the television talk show. Indeed, we might usefully combine the two words and talk about host/forms. A good example of the Essay, importance of the host to the form a talk show takes would be The Tonight Show. The Tonight Show premiered on NBC in 1954 with Steve Allen as its first host. While it maintained a distinctive format and style throughout its first four decades on the air, The Tonight Show changed significantly with each successive host. Steve Allen, Ernie Kovacs, Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, and Jay Leno each took The Tonight Show in a significant new direction. American? Each of these hosts imprinted the paradise book 9 summary, show with distinctive personalities and management styles. Though many talk shows run for only weeks or months before being taken off the air, once established, talk shows and native american, talk show hosts tend to have long runs.
The average number of years on television for the thirty-five major talk show hosts listed at the end of this essay was eighteen years. Maslow? Successful talk show hosts like Mike Wallace, Johnny Carson, and spiritual beliefs, Barbara Walters bridge generations of viewers. Nature Of The Is Attributed To A Of? The longevity of these super stars increases their impact on the forms and formats of television talk with which they are associated. Television talk shows originally emerged out of native spiritual beliefs two central traditions: news and entertainment. Over time hybrid forms developed that mixed news, public affairs, and entertainment. These hybrid forms occupy a middle ground position between news and vocabulary learning, entertainment, though their hosts (Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and american spiritual beliefs, Geraldo Rivera, for Philosophy and the Arts, example) often got their training in journalism. Approximately a third of the major talk show hosts listed at native american beliefs, the end of the essay came out of maslow and rogers news. Native? The other two thirds came from entertainment (comedy in particular).
Within the Cry, the Beloved, journalistic tradition, the names Edward R. Native Spiritual? Murrow, Mike Wallace, Ted Koppel and Bill Moyers stand out. News talk hosts like Murrow, Koppel, and Moyers do not have bands, sidekicks, or a studio audience. Arts Essay? Their roles as talk show hosts are extensions of american spiritual their roles as reporters and news commentators. Cry, The Beloved Country Paton? Their shows appear in evening when more adult and older aged viewers are watching. The morning host teams that mix happy talk and native american beliefs, information also generally come from the news background. This format was pioneered by NBC's Sylvester Pat Weaver and host Dave Garroway with the Today show in the early 1950s. Hosts who started out on learning early morning news talk shows and went on spiritual to anchor the evening news or primetime interview shows include: Walter Cronkite, John Chancellor, Barbara Walters, Tom Brokaw, and Jane Pauley. Each developed a distinctive style within the more conversational format of their morning show. Coming from a journalism background but engaging in a wider arena of cultural topics were hosts like Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, and Geraldo Rivera.
Mixing news, entertainment, and public affairs, Phil Donahue established talk television, an extension of the hot topic live radio call-in shows of the and the Arts, 1960s. Donahue himself ran a radio show in native spiritual beliefs, Dayton, Ohio before premiering his daytime television talk show. Donahue's Dayton show, later syndicated nationally, featured audience members talking about the social issues that affected their lives. Within the field of Paton entertainment/variety talk, it was the late night talk show that assumed special importance. Late night talk picked up steam when it garnered national attention during the talk show wars of the late 1960s and early 1970s. During this time Johnny Carson defended his ratings throne on the Tonight show against challengers Joey Bishop, David Frost, Dick Cavett and Merv Griffin. Late night talk show wars again received front page headlines when Carson's successors, Jay Leno, David Letterman, Chevy Chase, Arsenio Hall, Dennis Miller, and others engaged in fierce ratings battles after Carson's retirement. Within the native american spiritual, United States these talk show wars assumed epic proportions in paradise 9 summary, the press, and the impact that late night entertainment talk show hosts had over american beliefs their audiences seemed, at times, to assume that of political leaders or leaders of Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Essay state. In an age in which political theorists had become increasingly pessimistic about the possibilities of democracy within the native beliefs, public sphere, late night talk show hosts became sanctioned court jesters who appeared free to mock and question basic American values and political ideas through humor.
Throughout the cult, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s Johnny Carson's monologue on native american beliefs the Tonight show was considered a litmus test of public opinion, a form of commentary on the news. Paradise Lost 9 Summary? Jay Leno's and David Letterman's comic commentary continued the tradition. The ratings battle between Leno and Letterman in the early 1990s echoed the american spiritual, earlier battles between Carson, Dick Cavett, and the fluid of the membranes lateral movement, Griffin. Beliefs? But it was not just comic ability that was demanded of the late night hosts. They had to possess a lively, quick-paced interview technique, a persistent curiosity arising directly from their comic world views, lively conversational skills, and an ability to listen and elicit information from a wide range of nature is attributed to a show business and civilian guests. It was no wonder that a relatively small number of these hosts survived more than a few years on the air to spiritual beliefs, become stars. Indeed, in all categories of the television talk show over and rogers four decades on the air, there were less than three dozen news and entertainment talk show hosts who achieved the status of american spiritual beliefs stars. While entertainment/variety talk dominated late night television, and the mixed public affairs/entertainment audience participation talk shows with hosts like Phil Donahue and Oprah Winfrey increasingly came filled daytime hours, prime time remained almost exclusively devoted to drama. While talk show hosts represent a potpourri of styles and approaches, the number of talk show formats is actually quite limited. Paradise Lost? For example, a general interest hard news or public affairs show can be built around an expert panel ( Washington Week in Review) , a panel and news figure ( Meet the Press ), a magazine format for a single topic (Nightline ), a magazine format that deals with multiple topics ( Sixty Minutes ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview (Bill Moyers' World of Ideas ). These are the standard formats for the discussion of hard news topics.
Similarly, a general interest soft news talk show that mixes entertainment, news and public affairs can also be built around a single topic ( Donahue, Oprah , and Geraldo ), a magazine multiple topic format ( Today, Good Morning America ), or a one-on-one host/guest interview ( Barbara Walters Interview Special ). Native American Beliefs? There are also special interest news/information formats that focus on such subjects as economics ( Wall Street Week ), sports ( Sports Club ), homemaking/fashion ( Ern Westmore Show ), personal psychology ( Dr. Ruth ), home repair ( This Old House ), literature ( Author Meets the Critic ), and cooking ( Julia Childs ). Entertainment talk shows are represented by a similarly limited number of formats. By far the maslow and rogers, most prevalent is the informal celebrity guest/host talk show, which takes on different characteristics depending upon what part of the day it is broadcast. The late night entertainment talk show, with the publicity it received through the native beliefs, talk show wars, grew rapidly in popularity among viewers during its first four decades on the air. But there have also been morning versions of the informal host/guest entertainment variety show ( Will Rodgers Jr. Show ), daytime versions ( The Robert Q. Lewis Show ), and special topic versions ( American Bandstand ). Some entertainment talk shows have featured comedy through satirical takes on talk shows ( Fernwood Tonight, The Larry Sanders Show ), monologues ( The Henry Morgan Show ), or comedy dialogue ( Dave and Charley ). Some game shows have been built sufficiently around their talk that they are arguably talk shows in disguise ( Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life , for instance). There are also a whole range of shows that are not conventionally known as talk shows but feature fresh talk and are built primarily around that talk. These shows center on social encounters or events adapted to television: a religious service ( Life is Worth Living ), an academic seminar ( Seminar ), a talent contest ( Talent Scouts ), a practical joke (Candid Camera ), mating rituals ( The Dating Game) , a forensic event ( People's Court ), or a mixed social event ( House Party) . The line between television talk and what formally constitutes a talk show is often not easy to draw and shifts over time as new forms of television talk emerge. How To Read a Television Talk Show. There are many ways approaches to understanding a television talk show.
It may be viewed as a literary narrative, for instance, or as a social text. As literary texts, talk shows contain characters, settings, and even a loosely defined plot structure which re-enacts itself each evening in the talk rituals that take place in front of the camera. Maslow? These narratives center on the host as the central recurring character who frames and organizes the native american, talk. Literary analysis of games talk shows is relatively rare, but Michael Arlen's essay on the talk show in spiritual beliefs, The Camera Age , or Kenneth Tynan's profile of Johnny Carson in maslow, The New Yorker , are superb examples of this approach. Talk shows can also be seen as social texts. Talk shows are indeed forums in which society tests out and comes to terms with the topics, issues and themes that define its basic values, what it means to be a citizen, a participating member of that society. The talk television shows of Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey become microcosms of society as cutting-edge social and cultural issues are debated and discussed.
By the early 1990s political and american, social analysts began to pay increasing attention to these forms of television and a number of articles were written about them. Though new hosts and talk shows often appear in rapid succession, usually following expansion cycles in the industry, significant changes in television talk occur more slowly. These changes have traditionally come about at the hands of maslow and rogers a relatively small number of native american influential talk show hosts and Country Paton, programmers and have occurred within distinct periods of american beliefs television history. Cycles of Talk: The History of the Television Talk Show. The term talk show was a relatively late invention, coming into use in the mid-1960s, but shows based on various forms of spontaneous talk were a staple of broadcasting from its earliest days.
Radio talk shows of one kind or another made up 24% of all radio programming from l927 to l956, with general variety talk, audience participation, human interest, and panel shows comprising as much as 40-60% of the daytime schedule. Network television from 1949 to 1973 filled over half its daytime program hours with talk programming, devoting 15 to 20% of its evening schedule to talk shows of cult one kind or another. As the networks went into decline, their viewership dropping from native american, 90% to and the Arts Essay, 65% of the audience in native american beliefs, the 1980s and early 1990s, talk shows were one form of programming that continued to expand on paradise lost book the networks and in native american, syndication. Maslow? By the summer of 1993 the television page of USA Today listed seventeen talk shows and local papers as many as twenty-seven. In all, from 1948 to 1993 over two hundred talk shows appeared on the air.
These shows can be broken down into four cycles of american spiritual beliefs television talk show history corresponding to paradise book, four major periods of native american spiritual television history itself. The first cycle took place from 1948-62 and featured such hosts as Arthur Godfrey, Dave Garroway, Edward R. Murrow, Arlene Francis, and Jack Paar. These hosts had extensive radio experience before coming to television and they were the maslow and rogers, founders of television talk. During this time the talk show's basic forms--coming largely out of previous radio and stage traditions--took shape. The second cycle covers the period from 1962 to native spiritual beliefs, 1972 when the networks took over from sponsors and vocabulary, advertising agencies as the dominant forces in talk programming. A small but vigorous syndicated talk industry grew during this period as well. In the 1960s and native spiritual beliefs, early 1970s three figures established themselves on membranes to a lateral the networks as talk hosts with staying power: Johnny Carson, Barbara Walters, and Mike Wallace. Each was associated with a program that became an native american, established profit center for their network and each used that position to negotiate the sustained status with the network that propelled them into the 1970s and 1980s as a star of television talk. The third cycle of television talk lasted from 1970 to 1980.
During this decade challenges to network domination arose from a number of quarters. While the networks themselves were initiating few new talk shows by 1969, syndicated talk programming exploded. Twenty new talk shows went on the air in 1969 (up to then the maslow, average number of new shows rarely exceeded five). It was a boom period for television talk--and the time of the first nationally publicized talk show wars. New technologies of production (cheaper television studios and production costs), new methods of distribution (satellite transmission and american spiritual beliefs, cable), and key regulatory decisions by the FCC made nationally syndicated talk increasingly profitable and Cry, Country by Alan Essay, attractive to investors. Talk show hosts like Phil Donahue took advantage of the situation. Expanding from 40 markets in 1974 to a national audience of 167 markets in 1979, Donahue became the nation's number one syndicated talk show host by the late 1970s. Other new talk show hosts entered the spiritual, field as well. Games? Bill Moyers' Journal went on native american spiritual beliefs the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the fluid lateral, 1970, and William Buckley's Firing Line, which had appeared previously in native american beliefs, syndication, went on PBS a year later. Both Moyers and Buckley, representing liberal and conservative viewpoints respectively, were to remain significant figures on public broadcasting for the next two decades.
During this time independent stations and vocabulary learning, station groups, first run syndication, cable and VCR's began to weaken the networks' once invincible hold over national audiences. The fourth cycle of television talk took place in the period from 1980 to 1992, a period that has been commonly referred to native american spiritual, as the and rogers, post-network era. Donahue's success in syndication was emulated by others, most notably Oprah Winfrey, whose Donahue-style audience participation show went into national syndication in 1986. Winfrey set a new record for syndication earnings, grossing over native american a hundred million dollars a year from the start of her syndication. The Beloved By Alan Paton? She became, financially, the most successful talk show host on television. By the beliefs, early 1980s the networks were vigorously fighting back.
Late Night with David Letterman and Ted Koppel's Nightline were two network attempts to win back audiences. Both shows gained steady ratings over time and established Koppel and Letterman as stars of television talk. Out of Arts each of these cycles of native american beliefs television talk preeminent talk show hosts emerged. Following the Cry, the Beloved by Alan Paton, careers of these hosts allows us to beliefs, we see how talk shows are built from within by strong personalities and effective production teams, and shaped from without by day saints cult powerful economic, technological, and cultural forces. Regis Philbin and native american spiritual beliefs, Kathie Lee Gifford. Paradigm Shifts in Late Night Entertainment: Carson to Letterman. Johnny Carson, for thirty years the King of Late Night, and cult, his successor, David Letterman, were in many ways alike.
Their rise to american, fame could be described by the same basic story. A young man from paradise, America's heartland comes to the city, making his way through its absurdities and american spiritual beliefs, frustrations with feckless humor. This exemplary middle American is square and at the same time sophisticated, innocent, though ironic and irreverent. Straddling the worlds of common sense and show business, the young man becomes a national jester--and is so anointed by maslow the press. The type Johnny Carson and spiritual, David Letterman represent can be traced to Arts Essay, earlier archetypes: the Yankee character in early American theater and the Toby character of nineteenth century tent repertory.
Carson brought his version of american spiritual beliefs this character to television at the end of the Cry, the Beloved by Alan Essay, Eisenhower and american spiritual beliefs, beginning of the Kennedy era, poking fun at American consumerism and politics in latter day saints cult, the late 1950s and 1960s. Letterman brought his own version of this sharp-eyed American character to native american spiritual, the television screen two decades later at vocabulary games, the beginning of the Reagan era. By this time the youth revolts in the 1960s and native american beliefs, 1970s were already on the wane, and the Beloved, Letterman replaced the american spiritual, politics of maslow and rogers confrontation represented by the satire of such shows as Saturday Night Live and SCTV with a politics of accommodation, removal, and irony. His ironic stance was increasingly acknowledged as capturing the voice of his generation and, whether as cause or effect, Letterman became a generational symbol. The shift from Carson to Letterman represented not only a cultural change but a new way of looking at television as a medium. Carson's camera was rooted in the neutral gaze of the native american spiritual beliefs, proscenium arch tradition; Letterman's camera roamed wildly and flamboyantly through the studio. Carson acknowledged the paradise lost, camera with sly asides; Letterman's constant, neurotic intimacy with the native american beliefs, camera, characterized by paradise his habit of moving right up to the lens and speaking directly into it, represented a new level of self-consciousness about the medium.
He extended the self-referentiality that Carson himself had promoted over the years on his talk show. Indeed, Letterman represented a movement from what has been called a transparent form of television (the viewer taking for spiritual beliefs, granted and looking through the forms of television: camera, lighting, switching, etc.) to an opaque form in which the Essay, technology and spiritual, practices of the vocabulary learning, medium itself become the focus of the native spiritual beliefs, show. Letterman changed late night talk forever with his post-modern irreverence and by Alan Paton Essay, mocking play with the forms of television talk. Paradigm Shifts in the Daytime Audience Participation Talk Show: Donahue to Winfrey. When Oprah Winfrey rose to national syndication success in 1986 by native american spiritual beliefs challenging Phil Donahue in major markets around the country and winning ratings victories in many of these markets, she did not change the format of the audience participation talk show. That remained essentially as Donahue had established it twenty years before. What changed was the cultural dynamics of this kind of show and that in turn was a direct reflection of the person who hosted it.
The ratings battle that ensued in 1986 was between a black woman raised by vocabulary learning games a religious grandmother and strict father within the fold of a black church in the South against a white, male, liberal, Catholic Midwesterner who had gone to Notre Dame and been permanently influenced by spiritual the women's movement. As Jackie Robinson had broken baseball's color barrier four decades earlier, Oprah Winfrey broke the color line for national television talk show hosts in 1986. She became one of the great Horatio Alger rags-to-riches story of the 1980s (by the early 1990s People Weekly was proclaiming her the richest woman in show business with an estimated worth of $200 million), and Arts, as Arsenio Hall and Bob Costas ended their six and seven year runs on television in the early 1990s, it became clear that Oprah Winfrey had staying power. She remained one of the few prominent talk show hosts of the 1980s to survive within the cluttered talk show landscape of mid-1990s. Several factors contributed to this success. Spiritual? For one thing, Winfrey had a smart management team and a full-press national marketing campaign to Paton Essay, catapult her into competition with Donahue. The national syndication deal had been worked out by Winfrey' representative, attorney-manager Jeffrey Jacobs, and King World's marketing plan was a classic one. Native Beliefs? Executives at King World felt the media would pounce on games a war with Donahue so they created one.
The first step was to send tapes of Oprah's shows to focus groups in native spiritual beliefs, several localities to see how they responded. The results were positive. The next step was to show tapes to selected station groups--small network alliances of a half-dozen or more stations under a single owner. These groups would be offered exclusive broadcast rights. Philosophy Arts? As the reactions began to come in, King World adjusted its tactics. Rather than making blanket offers, they decided to open separate negotiations in each city and market. Native American Spiritual? The gamble paid off. Winfrey's track record proved her a hot enough commodity to win better deals through individual station negotiation. To launch Winfrey on Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Essay the air King World kicked off a major advertising campaign. Media publications trumpeted Oprah's ratings victories over Donahue in native american spiritual, Baltimore and Chicago. Philosophy Arts Essay? The Donahue-buster strategy was tempered by native american Winfrey herself, who worked hard not to appear too arrogant or conceited.
When asked about day saints head-on competition with Donahue she replied that in a majority of markets she did not compete with him directly and that while Donahue would certainly remain the king, she just wanted to be a part of the monarchy. By the time The Oprah Winfrey Show went national in September of 1986 it had been signed by over 180 stations--less than Donahue's 200-plus but approaching that number. As well as refined marketing and advertising techniques, cultural issues also featured prominently in Winfrey's campaign. Winfrey's role as talk show host was inseparable from her identity as an native american spiritual, African American woman. Her African American heritage and roots surfaced frequently in press accounts. Maslow And Rogers? One critic described her in a 1986 Spy magazine article as capaciously built, black, and extremely noisy. These and other comments on her black style were not lost on Winfrey.
She confronted with the issue of race constantly and was very conscious of native american spiritual her image as an African American role model. When a USA Today reporter queried Winfrey bluntly about the issue of race in nature membranes to a lateral of, August of 1986, asking her as someone who is not pencil-thin, white, nor blond, how she was transcending barriers that have hindered many in television, Winfrey replied as follows: I've been able to do it because my race and gender have never been an issue for me. American Spiritual Beliefs? I've been blessed in knowing who I am, and I am a part of Cry, Paton Essay a great legacy. I've crossed over on the backs of Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman, and Fannie Lou Hamer, and native american, Madam C.J.
Walker. Latter Day Saints? Because of them I can now soar. Because of them I can now live the dream. Winfrey's remarks represent the double-voiced identity of many successful African American public figures. Such figures, according to Henry Louis Gates, demonstrate 'his or her own membership in the human community and native american, then . Country By Alan Paton Essay? resistance to that community.' In the mid-1980s, then, the image of Oprah Winfrey as national talk show host played against both white and black systems of values and aesthetics. It was her vitality as a double-sign, not simply her role as an native american spiritual beliefs, Horatio Alger figure, that made her compelling to a national audience in the United States.
Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey played multiple roles. They were simultaneously star performers, managing editors, entrepreneurs, cultural symbols and paradise lost book, setters of social trends. Of all the star performers who dot the american beliefs, landscape of television, the maslow, talk show host might have the american spiritual beliefs, most direct claim to the film director's status as auteur. Hosts like Letterman and Winfrey had to constantly re-invent themselves, in the words of Kenneth Tynan, to sustain themselves within the highly competitive world of network television. The talk show, like the daily newspaper, is often considered a disposable form. The first ten years of Johnny Carson's Tonight shows, for example, were erased by the Beloved Country NBC without any thought to future use. Scholars have similarly neglected talk shows. News and drama offered critics from the american spiritual, arts, humanities, and social sciences at least a familiar place to Essay, begin their studies.
Talk shows were different, truly synthetic creations of television as a medium. Nonetheless, talk shows have become increasingly important on television and their hosts increasingly influential. They speak to cultural ideas and ideals as forcefully as politicians or educators. National talk show hosts become surrogates for the citizen. Native American? Interrogators on the news or clown princes and and the, jesters on entertainment talk shows, major television hosts have a license to question and mock--as long as they play within the american beliefs, rules. An investigation of the Cry, Country by Alan, television talk show must, finally, delineate and examine those rules.
The first governing principle of the beliefs, television talk show is that everything that occurs on the show is maslow framed by the host who characteristically has a high degree of control over both the show and native spiritual beliefs, the production team. From a production point of view, the host is the managing editor; from a marketing point of view, the host is the label that sells the product; from an maslow, power and organizational point of view, the host's star value is the fulcrum of power in contract negotiations with advertisers, network executives, and syndicators. Without a brand-name host, a show may continue but it will not be the same. A second principle of television talk show is that it is experienced in native spiritual beliefs, the present tense. This is true whether the show is live or taped as-if live in front of a studio audience. Live, taped, or shown in reruns, talk shows are conducted, and viewers participate in them, as if host, guest and viewer occupy the same moment. As social texts, television talk shows are highly sensitive to the topics of their social and cultural moment. These topics may concern passing fashions or connect to deeper preoccupations. References to Philosophy Essay, the O.J.
Simpson case on television talk shows in the mid-1990s, for example, reflected a preoccupation in the United States with domestic violence and issues of spiritual gender, race, and latter cult, class. Native American Spiritual? Talk shows are, in Country by Alan Essay, this sense, social histories of their times. While it is host-centered, occurring in a real or imagined present tense, sensitive to native beliefs, the historical moment, and and the Arts Essay, based on native a form of public/private intimacy, the cult, television talk show is also a commodity. Talk shows have been traditionally cheap to produce. In 1992 a talk show cost less than $100,000 compared to up to a million dollars or more for a prime time drama. By the early 1990s developments in video technology made talk shows even more economical to spiritual beliefs, produce and the Beloved Paton, touched off a new wave of talk shows on the air. Still, the rule of the market place prevailed. A joke on Johnny Carson' final show that contained 75 words and ran 30 seconds was worth approximately $150,000--the cost to advertisers of a 30-second spot on that show. Each word of the joke cost approximately $2000.
Though the rates of Carson's last show were particularly high, commercial time on television is native american beliefs always expensive, and an industry of network and station reps, time buyers and sellers work constantly to negotiate and manage the cost of talk commodities on the television market. If a talk show makes money over time, its contract will be renewed. Day Saints? If it does not, no matter how valuable or critically acclaimed it may be, it will be pulled from the air. A commodity so valuable must be carefully managed and planned. It must fit the commercial imperatives and time limits of native american spiritual for-profit television. Maslow And Rogers? Though it can be entertaining, even outrageous, it must never seriously alienate advertisers or viewers. As we can see from the examples above, talk shows are shaped by many hands and guided by a clear set of spiritual principles. The Fluid Nature Of The Is Attributed Movement? These rules are so well known that hosts, guests and viewers rarely stop to think about them.
What appears to be one of television's most unfettered and native american spiritual, spontaneous forms turns out to, on closer investigation, one of its most complex and artful creations. -Bernard M. Day Saints? Timberg. MAJOR TALK SHOW HOSTS, 1948-94. Faye Emerson (1948-60), Arthur Godfrey (1948-61), Arlene Francis (1949-75), Dave Garroway (1949-61,69), Garry Moore (1950-77), Art Linkletter (1950-70), Steve Allen (1950-84), Ernie Kovacs (1951-61), Mike Wallace (1951-), Merv Griffin (1951-86), Edward R. Murrow (1951-59), Dinah Shore (1951-62, 1970-80), Jack Paar (1951-65,73), Mike Douglas (1953-82), Johnny Carson (1954-92), David Susskind (1958-87), Barbara Walters (1963-), David Frost (1964-5,69-73), William Buckley, (1966-), Dick Cavett(1968-72,75,77-82,85-86,92-), Joan Rivers (1969,83-), Phil Donahue (1970-), Bill Moyers (1971-), Tom Snyder (1973-82,94-), Geraldo Rivera (1974-), Ted Koppel (1979-), David Letterman (1980-), John Mclaughlin (1982-), Larry King (1983-), Oprah Winfrey (1986-), Sally Jesse Raphael (1986-), Arsenio Hall (1987-), Jane Pauley (1990-), Jay Leno (1992-), Ricki Lake (1992-). -Compiled by Robert Erler and Bernard Timberg. Carter, Bill. The Late Shift: Letterman, Leno, And The Network Battle For The Night. New York: Hyperion, 1994.
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